NEWSLETTER 02/2013 23. February 2013

Please acknowledge use of the database in your publications, and cite: 

Pollerspöck, J. 2013, Bibliography database of living/fossil sharks, rays and chimaeras (Chondrichtyes: Elasmobranchii, Holocephali),, World Wide Web electronic publication, Version 2013


  • Museum of Eastern Bohemia, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic (Homepage)
  • Stanislav Štamberg, Museum of Eastern Bohemia, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic
  • Luis O. Lucifora, Instituto de Biología Subtropical - Iguazú, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Universidad Nacional de Misiones, and Centro de Investigaciones del Bosque Atlántico, Puerto Iguazú, Misiones, Argentina

         Partner in Google-Maps:                           



New images at shark-references:

Many thanks to Mark Henry Sabaj Pérez, Collection Manager of Fishes, The Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University, Philadelphia for the image of Potamotrygon leopoldi:

Many thanks to Simon Weigmann, Biocenter Grindel and Zoological Museum, University of Hamburg, Section Ichthyology, Hamburg for the first image of the new genus and species Planonasus parini:

Missing papers:

Many thanks to all friends of shark-references, who send me some missing paper last month!

Shark-References would kindly like to ask you for your contribution to this project.

Please support and send missing papers (not listed papers or papers without the infosymbol) to


News from shark-references and partner:


Information of Spencer G. Lucas, Ph.D.
New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science:

NMMNH&S Bulletin 58 – A New Archaic Basking Shark (Lamniformes: Cetorhinidae) from the Late Eocene of Western Oregon, U.S.A., and Description of the Dentition, Gill Rakers and Vertebrae of the Recent Basking SharkCetorhinus maximus (Gunnerus)
By Bruce J. Welton
If you are interested in ordering Bulletin 58 for $12 you can contact Beth Ricker, Store Manager for the NMMNH&S, at to place orders.

Information of Dr. Evgeny V. Popov, Department of Paleontology:

You will find some papers (free download) of Information of here:


New described species/Taxonomic News:



WELTON, B.J. 2013 A New Archaic Basking Shark (Lamniformes: Cetorhinidae) from the Late Eocene of Western Oregon, U.S.A., and Description of the Dentition, Gill Rakers and Vertebrae of the Recent Basking Shark Cetorhinus maximus (Gunnerus). New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 58: 48pp

New genus: Keasius
New species: Keasius taylori
The Family Cetorhinidae Gill, includes one extant genus, Cetorhinus Blainville, and a single living species, the basking shark, C. maximus (Gunnerus). Excluding Pseudocetorhinus Duffin, a questionable cetorhinid from the Late Triassic of Europe, the oldest cetorhinids are found in the middle Eocene of Antarctica, the Eocene of Oregon, and possibly the Eocene (Bartonian-Priabonian) Tavda Formation, west Siberia, Russia. The genus Cetorhinus has previously included only one valid extinct species, C. parvus Leriche, a small Oligocene to middle Miocene shark from marine sediments of Europe, and possibly the late Oligocene of South Carolina, U.S.A. Late Miocene through Pleistocene basking sharks from Europe, Japan, Chile, California and Oregon, are generally referred to the Recent species, C. maximus, or just identified as Cetorhinus sp. 
For purposes of comparison with fossil cetorhinids, the gill rakers, teeth, and vertebrae of C. maximus are described and illustrated. The basking shark dentition shows weak gradient monognathic heterodonty in upper and lower jaws, weak dignathic heterodonty, no evidence of disjunct monognathic heterodonty in either jaw, strong ontogenetic heterodonty in both sexes, and no dental sexual dimorphism. The occurrence of abnormal teeth, especially in the upper dental series, is relatively common. 
The most primitive known cetorhinid has been discovered in deep water (bathyal), late Eocene sediments of the Keasey Formation, Columbia County, Oregon, U.S.A. The specimen, consisting of a partial associated skeleton, with 11 vertebrae, 5 gill rakers, and 22 teeth, and a second grill raker association from the same formation, form the basis for description of a new genus and species, Keasius taylori. The Oligocene-early Miocene species Cetorhinus parvus, is referred to the genus Keasius, and diagnoses for the Family Cetorhinidae, genus Cetorhinus, and species K. parvus, are emended to accommodate new information on the heterodonty, gill rakers and vertebral calcification patterns found in K. taylori. In most characters of its teeth, vertebrae, and gill rakers, K. taylori is more ancestral than Cetorhinus maximus, and is closely related to K. parvus. Based on dental reconstructions, K. taylori has an ancestral lamnoid dental formula, lacks the derived secondary homodonty of C. maximus, possesses moderate dignathic heterodonty, and moderate disjunct monognathic heterodonty in both jaws. Keasius taylori is interpreted to have dental bullae in both jaws. Among modern macrophagous lamniforms, the dentition of K. taylori resembles most closely that of the Lamnidae, and specifically Lamna. The vertebral calcifications found in centra of K. taylori most closely resemble the lamnoids, Isurus oxyrinchus and L. nasus, and the alopiid, Alopias superciliosus, but not Carcharodon carcharias, A. vulpinus, A. pelagicus, or any other extant lamniform species. The gill raker morphology of K. taylori is ancestral relative to those of the Oligocene K. parvus, or Miocene and younger Cetorhinus. Gill raker size increases from the Eocene to Recent. Keasius taylori was certainly microphagous, but may have been macrophagous as well. The holotype individual of K. taylori appears to be about 15 years old, based on counts of growth band increments on the corpus calcareum of seven centra.


WEIGMANN, S. & STEHMANN, M. & THIEL, R. 2013 Planonasus parini n. g. and n. sp., a new genus and species of false cat sharks (Carchariniformes, Pseudotriakidae) from the deep northwestern Indian Ocean off Socotra Islands. Zootaxa, 3609 (2): 163-181

New genus: Planonasus
New species: Planonasus parini
A new genus and species of the carcharhiniform family Pseudotriakidae is described based on three specimens caught near the Socotra Islands in the northwestern Indian Ocean. The first specimen and holotype of Planonasus parini g. n. and sp. n. was caught during cruise 17 of RV ‘Vityaz’ in 1988/89 along the deep western Indian Ocean. Two further specimens of the new genus and species were caught somewhat later by commercial trawlers close to the locality of the holotype. The new genus differs from the two other pseudotriakid genera Gollum and Pseudotriakis by the presence of oral papillae, the absence of nicitating eyelids, a longer head, an intermediate prenarial snout length, an intermediate number of tooth rows per jaw, a first dorsal fin of intermediate height and length and with a white free rear tip, a caudal peduncle of intermediate length, and fewer vertebrae.

Taxonomic News: 

FARIA, V.V. & MCDAVITT, M.T. & CHARVET, P. & WILEY, T.R. & SIMPFENDORFER, C.A. & NAYLOR, G.J.P. 2013 Species delineation and global population structure of Critically Endangered sawfishes (Pristidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 167 (1): 136-164

New synonyms: 
Pristis microdon Latham, 1794 and Pristis perotteti Müller & Henle 1841 are synonyms of Pristis pristis

Sawfishes are among the most endangered of all elasmobranch species, a factor fostering considerable worldwide interest in the conservation of these animals. However, conservation efforts have been hampered by the confusing taxonomy of the group and the poor state of knowledge about the family's geographical population structure. Based on historical taxonomy, external morphology, and mitochondrial DNA sequences (NADH-2), we show here that, globally, the sawfish comprise five species in two genera: Pristis pristis (circumtropical), Pristis clavata (east Indo-West Pacific), Pristis pectinata (Atlantic), Pristis zijsron (Indo-West Pacific), and Anoxypristis cuspidata (Indo-West Pacific, except for East Africa and the Red Sea). This improved understanding will have implications for the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List assessments, and endangered species laws and regulations in several countries. Furthermore, based on both or either of NADH-2 and the number of rostral teeth per side, we show that populations of P. pristis, P. pectinata, P. zijsron, and A. cuspidata exhibit significant geographic structuring across their respective ranges, meaning that regional-level conservation will be required. Finally, the NADH-2 gene may serve as a marker for the identification of rostra and fins involved in illegal trade. 


New Paper

Rezent Papers:

AGNESE, M. & VALIANTE, S. & LAFORGIA, V. & ANDREUCCETTI, P. &PRISCO, M. 2013 Cellular Localization of PACAP and Its Receptors in the Ovary of the Spotted Ray Torpedo marmorata Risso 1880 (Elasmobranchii: Torpediniformes). Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological Genetics and Physiology, 319 (1): s 1–9
AGUIRRE-VILLASEÑOR, H. & SALAS-SINGH, C. & MADRID-VERA, J. & MARTÍNEZ-ORTIZ, J. &, DIDIER, D.A. & EBERT, D.A. 2013 New eastern Pacific Ocean records of Hydrolagus melanophasma, with annotations of a juvenile female. Journal of Fish Biology, 82 (2): 714-724
ANDERSON, P.A. & HUBER, D.R. & BERZINS, I.K. 2012 Correlations of capture, transport, and nutrition with spinal deformities in sandtiger sharks, Carcharias taurus, in public aquaria. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 43 (4): 750-758
ARLYZA, I.S. & SHEN, K.-N. & SOLIHIN, D.D. & SOEDHARMA, D. & BERREBI, P. & BORSA, P.  2013 Species boundaries in the Himantura uarnak species complex (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 66 (1): 429–435
ARNOLD, J.E. 2012 Carcharhinus plumbeus: standardization of complete blood count techniques for elasmobranchs (vol 34, pg 115, 2005). Errata. Veterinary Clinical Pathology, 41 (4): 608
BA, A. & DIOP, M.S. & DIATTA, Y. & JUSTINE, D. & BA, C.T. 2013 Diet of the milk shark, Rhizoprionodon acutus (Chondrichthyes: Carcharhinidae), from the Senegalese coast.Journal of Applied Ichthyology, in press
BARBINI, S.A. & LUCIFORA, L.O. 2012 Feeding habits of a large endangered skate from the south-west Atlantic: the spotback skate, Atlantoraja castelnaui. Marine and Freshwater Research, 63 (2): 180-188
BAREMORE, I.E. & HALE, L.F. 2012 Reproduction of the Sandbar Shark in the Western North Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. Marine and Coastal Fisheries, 4 (1): 560-572
BENOÎT, H.P. 2013 Two decades of annual landed and discarded catches of three southern Gulf of St Lawrence skate species estimated under multiple sources of uncertainty. ICES Journal of Marine Science, in press
BORNATOWSKI, H. & HEITHAUS, M.R. & BATISTA, C.M.P. & MASCARENHAS, R. 2012Shark scavenging and predation on sea turtles in northeastern Brazil. Amphibia-Reptilia, 33 (3-4): 495-502
BOTTARI, T. & RINELLI, P. & BIANCHINI, M.L. & RAGONESE, S. 2013 Stock identification of Raja clavata L. (Chondrichthyes, Rajidae) in two contiguous areas of the Mediterranean. Hydrobiologia, 703 (1): 215-224
BRADAI, M.N. & SAIDI, B. & ENAJJAR, S. 2012 Elasmobranchs of the Mediterranean and Black sea: status, ecology and biology. Bibliographic analysis. Studies and Reviews. General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean, 91, Rome, FAO: 103 pp
CHAPMAN, D.D. & FRISK, M.J. & ABERCROMBIE, D.L. & SAFINA, C. & GRUBER, S.H. & BABCOCK, E.A. & FELDHEIM, K.A. & PIKITCH, E.K. & WARD-PAIGE, C. & DAVIS, B. & KESSEL, S. & HEITHAUS, M. & WORM, B. 2013 Give Shark Sanctuaries a Chance.Science, 339: 757 
CHERNOVA, O.F. & VOROB'EVA, E.I. 2012 Polymorphism of the surface sculpture of placoid scales of sharks (Selachomorpha, Elasmobranchii). Doklady Biological Sciences, 446 (1): 316-319
CLAES, J.M. & DEAN, M.N. & NILSSON, D.-E. & HART, N.S. & MALLEFET, J. 2013 A deepwater fish with ‘lightsabers’ – dorsal spine-associated luminescence in a counterilluminating lanternshark. Scientific Reports, 3: 1308
COELHO, R. & FERNANDEZ-CARVALHO, J. & LINO, P.G. & SANTOS, M.N. 2012 An overview of the hooking mortality of elasmobranchs caught in a swordfish pelagic longline fishery in the Atlantic Ocean. Aquatic Living Resources, 25 (4): 311-319
CONCHA, F. & MORALES, N. & LARRAGUIBEL, J. 2013 Egg capsules of the Filetail fanskate Sympterygia lima (Poeppig 1835) (Rajiformes, Arhynchobatidae) from the southeastern Pacific Ocean, with observations on captive egg-laying. Ichthyological Research, in press
CUNHA, R.L. & COSCIA, I. & MADEIRA, C. & MARIANI, S. & STEFANNI, S. & CASTILHO, R. 2012 Ancient Divergence in the Trans-Oceanic Deep-Sea Shark Centroscymnus crepidater. PLoS ONE, 7 (11): e49196
DABRUZZI, T.F. & BENNETT, W.A. & RUMMER, J.L. & FANGUE, N.A. 2013 Juvenile Ribbontail Stingray, Taeniura lymma (Forsskål, 1775) (Chondrichthyes, Dasyatidae), demonstrate a unique suite of physiological adaptations to survive hyperthermic nursery conditions. Hydrobiologia, 701 (1): 37-49
DAVIES, T.K. & STEVENS, G. & MEEKAN, M.G. & STRUVE, J. & ROWCLIFFE, J.M. 2012 Can citizen science monitor whale-shark aggregations? Investigating bias in mark-recapture modelling using identification photographs sourced from the public. Wildlife Research, 39 (8): 696-704
DAVIES, W.I.L. & TAY, B.-H. & ZHENG, L. & DANKS, J.A. & BRENNER, S. FOSTER, R.G. & COLLIN, S.P. & HANKINS, M.W. & VENKATESH, B. & HUNT, D.M. 2012Evolution and Functional Characterisation of Melanopsins in a Deep-Sea Chimaera (Elephant Shark, Callorhinchus milii). PLoS ONE, 7 (12): e51276
EBERT, D.A. & STEHMANN, M. 2013 Sharks, batoids, and chimaeras of the North Atlantic. FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes, 7. Rome, FAO: 523 pp.
FARIA, V.V. & ROLIM, L.S. & VAZ, L.L. & FURTADO NETO, M.A.A. 2012 Reevaluation of RAPD markers involved in a case of stingray misidentification (Dasyatidae: Dasyatis).Genetics and Molecular Research,11 (4): 3835-3845
FRAZER, H.A. & ELLIS, M. & HUVENEERS, C. 2012 Can a Threshold Value Be Used to Classify Chondrichthyan Reproductive Modes: Systematic Review and Validation Using an Oviparous Species. PLoS ONE, 7 (12): e50196
GAMEZ BARRERA, D. & NIETO ALVARADO, L. & MORON GRANADOS, E. & PABLO CALDAS, J. & LUIS CORREA, J. 2012 First record of the longfin mako, Isurus paucus Guitart (Chondrichthyes: Lamnidae), for the Colombian Caribbean. Boletin de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras, 41 (2): 485-490
GUTTERIDGE, A.N. & HUVENEERS, C. & MARSHALL, L.J. & TIBBETTS, I.R. & BENNETT, M.B. 2013 Life-history traits of a small-bodied coastal shark. Marine and Freshwater Research, 64 (1): 54-65
HARAHUSH, B.K. & GREEN, K. & WEBB, R. & HART, N.S. & COLLIN, S.P. 2012Optimal preservation of the shark retina for ultrastructural analysis: An assessment of chemical, microwave, and high-pressure freezing fixation techniques. Microscopy Research and Technique, 75 (9): 1218-1228
HARFORD, W.J. 2013 Trophic Modeling of Shortfin Mako (Isurus Oxyrinchus) and Bluefish (Pomatomus Saltatrix) Interactions in the Western North Atlantic Ocean. Bulletin of Marine Science, 89 (1): 161-188
HOWEY-JORDAN, L.A. & BROOKS, E.J. & ABERCROMBIE, D.L. & JORDAN, L.K.B. & BROOKS, A. & WILLIAMS, S. & GOSPODARCZYK, E. & CHAPMAN, D.D. 2013 Complex Movements, Philopatry and Expanded Depth Range of a Severely Threatened Pelagic Shark, the Oceanic Whitetip (Carcharhinus longimanus) in the Western North Atlantic.PLoS ONE, 8 (2): e56588
JOHN, J. & SEIDEMANN, D.E. & CHAMBERLAIN, J.A. & CHENG, Z. & BECKER, M.A. 2012 Trace and Minor Element Chemistry of Modern Shark Teeth and Implications for Shark Tooth Geochronometry. In: Wai, M., and Gong, X.G. (eds), Strontium: Chemical Properties, Applications, and Health Effects, Nova Science Publishers, ISBN: 978-1-62257-631-9: 27-53
KOCK, A. & O’RIAIN, M.J. & MAUFF, K. & MEŸER, M. & KOTZE, D. & GRIFFITHS, C. 2013 Residency, Habitat Use and Sexual Segregation of White Sharks, Carcharodon carcharias in False Bay, South Africa. PLoS ONE, 8 (1): e55048
KUMAR, K.V.A. & KHANOLKAR, S.P. & PRAVIN, P. & MEENAKUMARI, B. & RADHAKRISHNAN, E.V. 2013 First Record of the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, (Bleeker, 1856) (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae) from the Lakshadweep Sea, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 5 (1): 3580-3582
LIGAS, A. & OSIO, G.C. & SARTOR, P. & SBRANA, M. & DE RANIERI, S. 2013 Long-term trajectory of some elasmobranch species off the Tuscany coasts (NW Mediterranean) from 50 years of catch data. Scientia Marina, in press
MORO, G. & CHARVET, P. & ROSA, R.S. 2012 Insectivory in Potamotrygon signata (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae), an endemic freshwater stingray from the Parnaiba River basin, northeastern Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 72 (4): 885-891
MOURIER, J. & MILLS, S.C. & PLANES, S. 2013 Population structure, spatial distribution and life-history traits of blacktip reef sharks Carcharhinus melanopterus. Journal of Fish Biology, in press
NAGASAWA, K. & SENOU, H. 2012 Third record of Dinemoleus indeprensus (Copepoda: Pandaridae) from the megamouth shark, Megachasma pelagios. Biogeography, 14: 147-149 
NAVARRO, J. & COLL, M. & PREMINGER, M. & PALOMERA, I. 2013 Feeding ecology and trophic position of a Mediterranean endemic ray: consistency between sexes, maturity stages and seasons. Environmental Biology of Fishes, in press
NEFF, C. & HUETER, R. 2013 Science, policy, and the public discourse of shark “attack”: a proposal for reclassifying human–shark interactions. Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences,
OHTANI, M. & HIKIMA, J.-I. & JUNG, T.S. & KONDO, H. & HIRONO, I. & AOKI, T. 2013Construction of an Artificially Randomized IgNAR Phage Display Library: Screening of Variable Regions that Bind to Hen Egg White Lysozyme. Marine Biotechnology, 15 (1): 56-62
PERSKY, M.E. & WILLIAMS, J.J. & BURKS, R.E. & BOWMAN, M.R. & RAMER, J.C. & PROUDFOOT, J.S. 2012 Hematologic, plasma biochemistry, and select nutrient values in captive smooth dogfish (Mustelus canis). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 43 (4): 842-851
POORTVLIET, M. & HOARAU, G. 2013 The complete mitochondrial genome of the Spinetail Devilray, Mobula japanica. Mitochondrial DNA, 24 (1): 28-30
REUM, J.C.P. & ESSINGTON, T.E. 2013 Spatial and seasonal variation in δ15N and δ13C values in a mesopredator shark, Squalus suckleyi, revealed through multitissue analyses. Marine Biology, 160 (2): 399-411
ROGERS, P.J. & HUVENEERS, C. & GOLDSWORTHY, S.D. & CHEUNG, W.W.L. & JONES, G.K. & MITCHELL, J.G. & SEURONT, L. 2013 Population metrics and movement of two sympatric carcharhinids: a comparison of the vulnerability of pelagic sharks of the southern Australian gulfs and shelves. Marine and Freshwater Research, 64 (1): 20-30
ROLLAND, M. & DE MELO, E.H. & VIEIRA, E.L. & DE OLIVEIRA, M.D.A.C. & DE FRANCA CALDAS, A. 2012 Environmental conditions associated with shark attacks against humans: a case report about territoriality. American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, 33 (3): 265-267
ROSE, J.D. & ARLINGHAUS, R. & COOKE, S.J. & DIGGLES, B.K. & SAWYNOK, W. & STEVENS, E.D. & WYNNE, C.D.L. 2013 Can fish really feel pain? Fish and Fisheries, in press
RUSYAEV, S.M. & ORLOV, A.M. 2013 Bycatches of the greenland shark Somniosus microcephalus (Squaliformes, Chondrichthyes) in the barents sea and the adjacent waters under bottom trawling data. Journal of Ichthyology, 53 (1): 111-115
SCHAEFFNER, B.C. & BEVERIDGE, I. 2013 Redescriptions and new records of species of Otobothrium Linton, 1890 (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha). Systematic Parasitology, 84 (1): 17-55
SCHAEFFNER, B.C. & BEVERIDGE, I. 2013 Pristiorhynchus palmi n. g., n. sp. (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha) from sawfishes (Pristidae) off Australia, with redescriptions and new records of six species of the Otobothrioidea Dollfus, 1942. Systematic Parasitology, 84 (2): 97-121
SEQUEIRA, A.M.M. & MELLIN, C. & MEEKAN, M.G. & SIMS, D.W. & BRADSHAW, C.J.A. 2013 Inferred global connectivity of whale shark Rhincodon typus populations.Journal of Fish Biology, 82 (2): 367–389
SIMARD, B. & RATEL, D. & DUPRE, I. & PAUTRE, V. & BERGER, F. 2013 Shark cartilage extract induces cytokines expression and release in endothelial cells and induces E-selectin, plasminogen and t-PA genes expression through an antioxidant-sensitive mechanism. Cytokine, 61 (1): 104-111; DOI:10.1016/j.cyto.2012.08.035
SOARES, M.C. & DE CARVALHO, M.R. 2013 Comparative myology of the mandibular and hyoid arches of sharks of the order Hexanchiformes and their bearing on its monophyly and phylogenetic relationships (Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii). Journal of Morphology, 274 (2): 203-214
STURDEVANT, M.V. & ORSI, J.A. & FERGUSSON, E.A. 2012 Diets and Trophic Linkages of Epipelagic Fish Predators in Coastal Southeast Alaska during a Period of Warm and Cold Climate Years, 1997-2011. Marine and Coastal Fisheries, 4 (1): 526-545
SULIKOWSKI, J.A. & PROHASKA, B.K. & CARLSON, A.E. & CICIA, A.M. & BROWN, C.T. & MORGAN, A.C. 2013 Observations of neonate spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias, in Southern New England: A first account of a potential pupping ground in the Northwestern Atlantic. Fisheries Research, 137: 59–62
SWAIN, D.P. & JONSEN, I.D. & SIMON, J.E. & DAVIES, T.D. 2013 Contrasting decadal trends in mortality between large and small individuals in skate populations in Atlantic Canada. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 70 (1): 74-89
TANG, D. & MARANB, V. & MATSUMOTO, Y. & NAGASAWA, K. 2013 Redescription of Lepeophtheirus acutus Heegaard, 1943 (Copepoda: Caligidae) parasitic on two elasmobranch hosts off Okinawa-jima Island, Japan. Journal of Natural History, in press
TAYLOR, S.M. & BENNETT, M.B. 2013 Size, sex and seasonal patterns in the assemblage of Carcharhiniformes in a sub-tropical bay. Journal of Fish Biology, 82 (1): 228-241
WEIGMANN, S. & STEHMANN, M. & THIEL, R. 2013 Planonasus parini n. g. and n. sp., a new genus and species of false cat sharks (Carchariniformes, Pseudotriakidae) from the deep northwestern Indian Ocean off Socotra Islands. Zootaxa, 3609 (2): 163-181
WERRY, J.M. & LEE, S.Y. & LEMCKERT, C.J. & OTWAY, N.M. 2012 Natural or Artificial? Habitat-Use by the Bull Shark, Carcharhinus leucas. PLoS ONE, 7 (11): e49796
WHITE, J. & HEUPEL, M.R. & SIMPFENDORFER, C.A. & TOBIN, A.J. 2013 Shark-like batoids in Pacific fisheries: prevalence and conservation concerns. Endangered Species Research, 19 (3): 277-284


BOR, T. & REINECKE, T. & VERSCHUEREN, S. 2012 Miocene Chondrichthyes from Winterswijk - Miste, the Netherlands. Palaeontos, 21: 1-136, 18 textfigures, 5 tables, 58 plates 
DENTZIEN-DIAS, P.C. & POINAR, G. & DE FIGUEIREDO, A.E.Q. & PACHECO, A.C.L. & HORN, B.L.D. & SCHULTZ, C.L. 2013 Tapeworm Eggs in a 270 Million-Year-Old Shark Coprolite. PLoS ONE, 8 (1): e55007
DIEDRICH, C.G. & FELKER, H. 2012 Middle eocene shark coprolites from shallow marine and deltaic coasts of the Pre-North Sea Basin in Central Europe. Bulletin of the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, 57: 311-318
DUFFIN, C.J. 2012 Coprolites and characters in Victorian Britain. Bulletin of the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, 57: 45-60
FRIEDMAN, V. 2012 Vertebrate coprolites from the Lower Eagle Ford Group of North Central Texas and their paleoecological significance. Bulletin of the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, 57: 221-228
LAOJUMPON, C. & MATKHAMMEE, T. & WATHANAPITAKSAKUL, A. & SUTEETHORN, V. & SUTEETHORN, S. & LAUPRASERT, K. & SRISUK, P. & LE LOEUFF, J. 2012Preliminary report on coprolites from the late triassic of Thailand. Bulletin of the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, 57: 207-214
MALYSHKINA, T.P. & GONZÁLEZ-BARBA, G. & BANNIKOV, A.F. 2013 Records of Elasmobranchian Teeth in the Bartonian of the Northern Caucasus (Russia) and Crimea (Ukraine). Paleonotological Journal, 47 (1): 98-103
RETZLER, A. & WILSON, M.A. & AVNI, Y. 2013 Chondrichthyans from the Menuha Formation (Late Cretaceous: Santonian–Early Campanian) of the Makhtesh Ramon region, southern Israel. Cretaceous Research, 40: 81–89
SCHWEIGERT, G. & DIETL, G. 2012 Vertebrate coprolites from the Nusplingen lithographic limestone (upper jurassic, SW Germany). Bulletin of the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, 57: 215-220
SQUIRES, R.L. 2012 Late pliocene megafossils of the Pico Formation, Newhall Area Los Angeles County, Southern California. Contributions in Science, 520: 73-93 
STRINGER, G.L. & KING, L. 2012 Late eocene shark coprolites from the Yazoo Clay in northeastern Louisiana. Bulletin of the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, 57: 275-310
UNDERWOOD, C.J. & GUNTER, G.C. 2012 The shark Carcharhinus sp. from the Middle Eocene of Jamaica and the Eocene record of Carcharhinus. Caribbean Journal of Earth Science, 44: 25-30 
WELTON, B.J. 2013 A New Archaic Basking Shark (Lamniformes: Cetorhinidae) from the Late Eocene of Western Oregon, U.S.A., and Description of the Dentition, Gill Rakers and Vertebrae of the Recent Basking Shark Cetorhinus maximus (Gunnerus). New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 58: 48pp 



Taking a Bite at the Shark Bite

Feb. 1, 2013 — Researchers from Nova Southeastern University (NSU) are conducting a unique scientific study of bacteria found in the mouths of sharks to develop better medical treatment methods for shark bites victims.

Scientists from NSU's College of Pharmacy working in collaboration with St. Mary's Medical Center will be gathering data from sharks captured during The Blacktip Challenge, a 72-hour South Florida fishing tournament to fish blacktip sharks from the beach. The tournament runs from Jan. 30 to Feb. 3.

In the last decade, Florida has consistently ranked amongst the highest worldwide in the number of shark attacks. The Sunshine State has accounted for about 25 percent of the approximate 100 incidents of reported shark bites a year.

Because of this, NSU researchers believe their findings are critical in helping the millions of ocean-goers each year that share the beaches and waterways with sharks. Their research, the first of its kind in the United States, could lead to groundbreaking research that will ultimately save lives from this tragedy.

"We are excited to gather scientific data from these incredible animals in order to learn more about the infecting bacteria from their bites and how to treat victims," said Nathan Unger, Pharm.D., an assistant professor at NSU's College of Pharmacy and the lead researcher on this project.


Story Source: Science Daily

Tiger Shark swims by at Tiger Beach in the Bahamas. (Credit: iStockphoto/Amanda Cotton)


Tapeworm Eggs Discovered in 270-Million-Year-Old Fossil Shark Feces

Jan. 30, 2013 — A cluster of tapeworm eggs discovered in 270-million-year-old fossilized shark feces suggests that intestinal parasites in vertebrates are much older than previously known, according to research published Jan. 30 in the open access journal PLOS ONE by Paula Dentzien-Dias and colleagues from the Federal University of Rio Grande, Brazil.

Remains of such parasites in vertebrates from this era are rare- of 500 samples examined, only one revealed the tapeworm eggs. This particular discovery helps establish a timeline for the evolution of present-day parasitic tapeworms that occur in foods like pork, fish and beef.

The fossilized eggs were found in a cluster very similar to those laid by modern tapeworms. Some of them are un-hatched and one contains what appears to be a developing larva. According to the study, "This discovery shows that the fossil record of vertebrate intestinal parasites is much older than was previously known and occurred at least 270-300 million years ago."

The fossil described in this study is from Middle-Late Permian times, a period followed by the largest mass extinction known, when nearly 90% of marine species and 70% of terrestrial species died out.

Financial support was provided by the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientıfico e Tecnologico -- Brazil (CNPq) through a study grant (PCD-D, AEQF and BH) and the Project 478914/2006-7 (Edital MCT/CNPq 02/2006 -- Universal). This work was also partially funded by the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientıfico e Tecnologico through scholarships granted to AEQF, BH and CLS.

Story Source: Science Daily


Journal Reference:

  1. Paula C. Dentzien-Dias, George Poinar, Ana Emilia Q. de Figueiredo, Ana Carolina L. Pacheco, Bruno L. D. Horn, Cesar L. Schultz. Tapeworm Eggs in a 270 Million-Year-Old Shark CoprolitePLoS ONE, 2013; 8 (1): e55007 DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0055007

Glowing shark scares off predators with 'lightsabers'

Velvet belly lanternshark
The shark glows from its stomach - but it also has "lightsaber-like" spines that light up from above, acting as a warning beacon to passing predators

A glow-in-the-dark shark scares off predators with "lightsaber-like" spines on its back, a study suggests.

The research was carried out on the velvet belly lanternshark, a small species found in the deep waters of the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea.

The scientists believe that while the light-up spines can be seen by larger, potentially dangerous fish, they are harder for the shark's prey to spot.

The study is published in the Nature journal Scientific Reports.

Invisibility cloak

This species of lanternshark (Etmopterus spinax) lives in the mesopelagic zone of the ocean, which has a range between 200m and 1,000m in depth.


Dr Claes explains how the glow-in-the-dark shark can both hide and advertise itself using light

It is a diminutive shark; the largest can measure up to about 60cm in length, but most are about 45cm long.

Until recently, little had been known about this species, apart from the fact that like many deep sea creatures it has the ability to glow - a trait called bioluminescence.

Previous research found that the shark has light-producing cells called photophores in its belly, and it uses this light to camouflage itself.

"Imagine you are below the shark, the shark is swimming and you have the light from the Sun coming down," explained Dr Julien Claes, a shark biologist from the Catholic University of Louvain in Belgium, and the lead author of the study.

"If you are just below the shark what you are going to see is a shadow. So imagine if the shark can actually produce a light, which is identical to the light produced by the Sun. Then the shadow of the shark is going to disappear."

Any prey lurking below, typically a small fish called Mueller's pearlside, will not see the shark coming.

However, this new study revealed that the shark is also luminescent on its top side.

Dr Claes said: "There are two spines, one in front of each dorsal fin, and just behind them you have two rows of photophores. They are like lightsabers - they illuminate the spine.

"It was surprising - why would you try to be invisible from below but visible from the dorsal side?"

Warning beacon

Visual modelling experiments revealed that potential predators could see the light from several metres away.

Velvet belly lanternshark
The shark is attempting to show of its spines to any animals hoping to eat it

The shark's prey, however, could only see the glow from a distance of about 1.5m, giving them less chance of making an escape.

The team concluded that the glowing spines were acting as a beacon, illuminating the shark's threatening spines.

Dr Claes: "It's a way to say: 'Don't bite me, I'm dangerous, I have spines on my back. You could be hurt.'

"When you live in this dark place, what you try to do is avoid is to be seen by other animals, because there are no places to hide.

"It can be very dangerous - you put yourself at risk when you produce light from your back, unless it acts as a warning system."

He said it was unusual to find an animal that was using light to both hide and advertise itself at the same time.

"It's surprising that these two apparently opposite behaviours can occur in a single organism at the same time. It is really paradoxical."

Velvet belly lanternshark
What the shark lacks in size, it makes up for in its ability to glow in the dark
Story source: BBC News