NEWSLETTER 04/2013 21. April 2013

Please acknowledge use of the database www.shark-references.com in your publications, and cite: 

Pollerspöck, J. 2013, Bibliography database of living/fossil sharks, rays and chimaeras (Chondrichtyes: Elasmobranchii, Holocephali), www.shark-references.com, World Wide Web electronic publication, Version 2013


  • Jan Adolfssen, Natural History Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark
  • Enrique Bernárdez, Universidad de Atacama, Departamento de Geología, Copiapó, Atacama, Chile

         Partner in Google-Maps:                           



New images at shark-references:

Many thanks to the following persons for the permission to use their images:

Missing papers:

Many thanks to all friends of shark-references, who send me some missing paper last month!

Shark-References would kindly like to ask you for your contribution to this project.

Please support www.shark-references.com and send missing papers (not listed papers or papers without the infosymbol) to juergen.pollerspoeck@shark-references.com.


News from shark-references and partner:

Thanks a lot to Simon Weigman, University of Hamburg, Germany, for the species description of Planonasus parini at shark-references!

You want support shark-references and could write or update a species description (extanct/extinct sharks, skates, rays and chimaeras, parasites)? Please contanct me (juergen.pollerspoeck@shark-references.com)!

A review of the fossil Echinorhinidae (species descriptions, distribution)

Distribution of fossil Echinorhinidae


Echinorhinus australis
Echinorhinus blakei
Echinorhinus caspius
Echinorhinus eyrensis
Echinorhinus kelleyi
Echinorhinus lapaoi
Echinorhinus pfauntschi
Echinorhinus pollerspoecki
Echinorhinus pozzii
Echinorhinus priscus
Echinorhinus richiardii
Echinorhinus schoenfeldi
Echinorhinus sp
Echinorhinus weltoni
Gibbechinorhinus lewyi
Orthechinorhinus pfeili
Paraechinorhinus riepli
Pseudoechinorhinus mackinnoni

Please send your images of fossil Echinorhinidae to shark-references!


New described species/Taxonomic News:


IGLÉSIAS, S.P. 2012 Apristurus nakayai sp. nov., a new species of deepwater catshark (Chondrichthyes: Pentanchidae) from New Caledonia. Cybium, 36 (4): 511-519
New species: Apristurus nakayai
Abstract: A new species of deepwater catshark (Pentanchidae) is described based on a single adult male measuring 676 mm TL that was collected at a depth of 953-1022 m on the Coriolis Bank off western New Caledonia in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. Within the genus Apristurus, the species belongs to the brunneus group whose members share a higher spiral valve count and the upper labial furrows are longer than the lower furrows. Apristurus nakayai sp. nov. differs from its congeners of the brunneus group through a combination of the following characters: shiny white iris on fresh specimen (unique among the genus); brownish black colouration; short distance from pectoral-fin tip to pelvic-fin origin, subequal to internarial width; cloaca located well anterior to the midpoint of the total length; pectoral fins large, width about 2.7 times pectoral fin tip to pelvic fin origin; long anal-fin base, longer than distance between dorsal fin insertions; first dorsal fin located well behind pelvic-fin insertion; first dorsal fin markedly smaller than second dorsal fin; very long caudal-fin terminal lobe, its length more than twice its height; no denticles in the mouth; very short pyloric stomach; intestinal spiral valves 16; monospondylous vertebrae 36; precaudal diplospondylous vertebrae 37. DNA barcoding from the COI sequence reveal high genetic distances with its Australasian congeners.


PAULIV, V.E. & DIAS, E.V. & SEDOR, F.A. 2012 A new species of Sphenacanthid (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from the Rio do Rasto Formation (Paraná Basin), southern Brazil. Revisita del Brasileiro de Paleontologia, 15 (3) 243-250
New species: Sphenacanthus riorastoensis
Abstract: The chondrichthyan skeletal structures with the greatest potential for fossilization are teeth, scales, fin and cephalic spines. In the Rio do Rasto Formation, the Chondrichthyes are represented by finspines and teeth attributed to sphenacanthids, hybodontids and xenacanthids. Herein is presented new finspines collected from an outcrop of the Serrinha Member of the Rio do Rasto Formation, in the Municipality of Jacarezinho, Paraná State. The studied material consists of two finspines that are gradually tapered distally, with convex anterior and lateral faces. The posterior proximal face is strongly concave forming a furrow; absence of pronounced median ridge in the posterior distal face; the lateral faces have non-pectinated ribs separated by intercostal grooves, some of them bifurcated and beaded with rows of rounded closely spaced tubercles are the features that allow the finspines to be ascribed to a new species of Sphenacanthidae.

UNDERWOOD, C.J. & SCHLOGL, J. 2013 Deep water chondrichthyans from the Early Miocene of the Vienna Basin (Central Paratethys, Slovakia). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, in press
New genus: Nanocetorhinus
New species: Pristiophorus striatus, Eosqualiolus skrovinai, Paraetmopterus horvathi, Nanocetorhinus tuberculatus,
Abstract: Sampling of latest Burdigalian (Miocene) mudstones from the Malé Karpaty Mountains in the Slovak Republic revealed a deep water, low diversity shark fauna. The fauna is dominated by teeth of very small squaliform sharks, including two new species, Eosqualiolus skrovinai sp. nov. and Paraetmopterus horvathi sp. nov. The generic composition of the squaliform fauna is more similar to that known from the Eocene than that of today, suggesting a post-middle Miocene faunal turnover within this clade, at least locally. Nectobenthic, non squaliform sharks are rare, but include the new sawshark species Pristiophorus striatus sp. nov., while minute teeth of an enigmatic taxon described here as Nanocetorhinus tuberculatus gen. et sp. nov. probably indicate the presence of a previously unrecorded planktivore. The unusual composition of the fauna, with the complete absence of taxa known to be of medium to large size, suggests an unusual, and probably very stressed, palaeoenvironment.



CIELOCHA, J.J. & JENSEN, K. 2012 Stoibocephalum n. gen. (Cestoda: Lecanicephalidea) from the sharkray, Rhina ancylostoma Bloch & Schneider (Elasmobranchii: Rhinopristiformes), from northern Australia. Zootaxa, 3626 (4): 558-568

New genus: Stoibocephalum
New species: Stoibocephalum arafurense
Abstract: A new genus and species of lecanicephalidean cestode, Stoibocephalum arafurense n. gen., n. sp., is described from the sharkray, Rhina ancylostoma Bloch & Schneider, off northern Australia. Stoibocephalum arafurense n. gen., n. sp. is apolytic, and possesses a large, muscular, retractable apical organ, 3 pairs of excretory vessels, and testes in several columns and layers. The presence of 3 pairs of excretory vessels distinguishes this new genus from all other valid lecanicephalidean genera, except Hexacanalis Perrenoud, 1931, from which it can be distinguished based on ovary shape and egg morphology. Stoibocephalum n. gen. most closely resembles Tylocephalum Linton, 1890 but differs from that genus in its ability to completely retract its apical organ into the scolex proper. Scolex microthrix pattern and histological sections of scoleces attached in situ suggest S. arafurense n. gen., n. sp. to attach to the host's intestinal mucosa with apical organ and scolex proper surfaces, rather than just the apical organ surface. This is the third lecanicephalidean species described from the sharkray.

New Paper

Recent Papers:

ALASTAIR, V.H. & TOBIN, A.J. & SIMPFENDORFER, C.A. 2013 Age, growth and reproductive biology of the spot-tail shark, Carcharhinus sorrah, and the Australian blacktip shark, C. tilstoni, from the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area, north-eastern Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research, 64 (4): 277-293 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/MF12142
BALL, R.E. & JONES, C.S. & LYNGHAMMAR, A. & NOBLE, L.R. & GRIFFITHS, A.M. 2013 The first confirmed cases of full albinism in rajid species. Journal of Fish Biology, 82 (4): 1433-1440 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfb.12072
BARRERA-GARCÍA, A. & O'HARA, T. & GALVÁN-MAGAÑA, F. & MÉNDEZ-RODRÍGUEZ, L.C. & CASTELLINI, J.M. & ZENTENO-SAVÍNA, T. 2013 Trace elements and oxidative stress indicators in the liver and kidney of the blue shark (Prionace glauca).Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology, in press http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2013.01.024
BECKMANN, C.L. & MITCHELL, J.G. & SEURONT, L. & STONE, D.A.J. & HUVENEERS, C. 2013 Experimental Evaluation of Fatty Acid Profiles as a Technique to Determine Dietary Composition in Benthic Elasmobranchs. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 86 (2): 266-278 http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/669539
BENOÎT, H.P. 2013 An empirical model of seasonal depth-dependent fish assemblage structure to predict the species composition of mixed catches. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 70 (2): 220-232 http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjfas-2012-0166
BENOÎT, H.P. & HURLBUT, T.R. & CHASSÉ, J. & JONSEN, I.D. 2012 Estimating fishery-scale rates of discard mortality using conditional reasoning. Fisheries Research, 125-126: 318-330 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2011.12.004
BENOÎT, H.P. & PLANTE, S. & KROIZ, M. & HURLBUT, T. 2013 A comparative analysis of marine fish species susceptibilities to discard mortality: effects of environmental factors, individual traits, and phylogeny. ICES Journal of Marine Science, in presshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fss132
BRUCE, B.D. & BRADFORD, R.W. 2013 The effects of shark cage-diving operations on the behaviour and movements of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, at the Neptune Islands, South Australia. Marine Biology, 160 (4): 889-907 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-012-2142-z
DOMEIER, M.L. & NASBY-LUCAS, N. 2013 Two-year migration of adult female white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) reveals widely separated nursery areas and conservation concerns. Animal Biotelemetry, 1: 2 http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2050-3385-1-2
DREW, J. & PHILIPP, C. & WESTNEAT, M.W. 2013 Shark Tooth Weapons from the 19th Century Reflect Shifting Baselines in Central Pacific Predator Assemblies. PLoS ONE, 8 (4): e59855 http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059855
DUNN, M.R. & STEVENS, D.W. & FORMAN, J.S. & CONNELL, A. 2013 Trophic Interactions and Distribution of Some Squaliforme Sharks, Including New Diet Descriptions for Deania calcea and Squalus acanthias. PLoS ONE, 8 (3): e59938http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059938
FALLOWS, C. & GALLAGHER, A.J. & HAMMERSCHLAG, N. 2013 White Sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) Scavenging on Whales and Its Potential Role in Further Shaping the Ecology of an Apex Predator. PLoS ONE, 8 (4): e60797http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060797
FRANCIS, M.P. 2013 Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Habitat Use by Juveniles of a Small Coastal Shark (Mustelus lenticulatus) in an Estuarine Nursery. PLoS ONE, 8 (2): e57021 http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057021
GALVÁN-MAGAÑA, F. & POLO-SILVA, C. & HERNÁNDEZ-AGUILAR, S.B. & SANDOVAL-LONDOÑO, A. & OCHOA-DÍAZ, M.R. & AGUILAR-CASTRO, N. & CASTAÑEDA-SUÁREZ, D. & CHAVEZ-COSTA, A.C. & BAIGORRÍ-SANTACRUZ, A. & TORRES-ROJAS, Y.E. & ABITIA-CÁRDENAS, L.A. 2013 Shark predation on cephalopods in the Mexican and Ecuadorian Pacific Ocean. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, in press http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2013.04.002
GOETZE, J.S. & FULLWOOD, L.A.F. 2013 Fiji's largest marine reserve benefits reef sharks. Coral Reefs, 32 (1): 121-125 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00338-012-0970-4
GRANT, K.R. & CAMPBELL, T.W. & SILVER, T.I. & OLEA-POPELKA, F.J. 2013Validation of an Ultrasound-Guided Technique to Establish a Liver-to-Coelom Ratio and a Comparative Analysis of the Ratios Among Acclimated and Recently Wild-Caught Southern Stingrays, Dasyatis americana. Zoo Biology, 32 (1): 104-111http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/zoo.21014
HOFFMAYER, E.R. & FRANKS, J.S. & DRIGGERS, W.B. & HOWEY, P.W. 2013 Diel Vertical Movements of a Scalloped Hammerhead, Sphyrna lewini, in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Bulletin of Marine Science, 89 (2): 551-557
IGLÉSIAS, S.P. 2012 Apristurus nakayai sp. nov., a new species of deepwater catshark (Chondrichthyes: Pentanchidae) from New Caledonia. Cybium, 36 (4): 511-519
JANSE, M. & KAPPE, A.L. & VAN KUIJK, B.L.M. 2013 Paternity testing using the poisonous sting in captive white-spotted eagle rays Aetobatus narinari: a non-invasive tool for captive sustainability programmes. Journal of Fish Biology, 82 (3): 1082-1085http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfb.12038
JORDAN, L.K. & MANDELMAN, J.W. & MCCOMB, D.M. & FORDHAM, S.V. & CARLSON, J.K. & WERNER, T.B. 2013 Linking sensory biology and fisheries bycatch reduction in elasmobranch fishes: a review with new directions for research. Conservation Physiology, 1 (1): cot002 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/conphys/cot002
KENCHINGTON, E. & POWER, D. & KOEN-ALONSO, M. 2013 Associations of demersal fish with sponge grounds on the continental slopes of the northwest Atlantic. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 477: 217 http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/meps10127
KLAGES, J. & BROAD, A. & KELAHER, B.P. & DAVIS, A.R. 2013 The influence of gummy sharks, Mustelus antarcticus, on observed fish assemblage structure.Environmental Biology of Fishes, in press http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10641-013-0138-2
MEREDITH, T.L. & KAJIURA, S.M. & HANSEN, A. 2013 The somatotopic organization of the olfactory bulb in elasmobranchs.  Journal of Morphology, 274 (4): 447-455http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmor.20106
MUCIENTES, G. & BAÑÓN, R. & QUEIROZ, N. 2013 Updated distribution range of longfin mako Isurus paucus (Lamniformes: Lamnidae) in the North Atlantic. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, in press http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jai.12203
MUÑOZ-OSORIO, L.A. & MEJÍA-FALLA, P.A. 2013 Primer registro de la raya manzana, Paratrygon aiereba (Müller & Henle, 1841) (Batoidea: Potamotrygonidae) para el río Bita, Orinoquía, Colombia. (First record of the discusray, Paratrygon aiereba (Müller & Henle, 1841) (Batoidea: Potamotrygonidae) for the Bita River, Orinoco Basin of Colombia). Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research, 41 (1): 189-193 http://dx.doi.org/103856/vol41-issue1-fulltext-18
MUÑOZ-OSORIO, L.A. & MEJÍA-FALLA, P.A. & NAVIA, A.F. 2013 First record of a bicephalic embryo of smalltail shark Carcharhinus porosus. Journal of Fish Biology, in press http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfb.12102
PUCKRIDGE, M. & LAST, P.R. & WHITE, W.T. & ANDREAKIS, N. 2013 Phylogeography of the Indo-West Pacific maskrays (Dasyatidae, Neotrygon): a complex example of chondrichthyan radiation in the Cenozoic. Ecology and Evolution, 3 (2): 217-232http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.448
SADHASIVAM, G. & MUTHUVEL, A. & PACHAIYAPPAN, A. & THANGAVEL, B. 2013Isolation and characterization of hyaluronic acid from the liver of marine stingray Aetobatus narinari. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 54: 84-89http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2012.11.028
SEQUEIRA, A.M.M. & MELLIN, C. & DELEAN, S. & MEEKAN, M.G. & BRADSHAW, C.J.A. 2013 Spatial and temporal predictions of inter-decadal trends in Indian Ocean whale sharks. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 478: 185-195 http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/meps10166
STRID, A. & BRUHN, C. & SVERKO, E. & SVAVARSSON, J. & TOMY, G. & BERGMAN, A. 2013 Brominated and chlorinated flame retardants in liver of Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus). Chemosphere, 91 (2): 222-228 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.12.059
SURESH, T.V. & RAFFI, S.M. 2012 Pectoral fin anomalies in the long-tailed butterfly ray, Gymnura poecilura collected from Nagapattinam coastal waters, south-east coast of India.Marine Biodiversity Records, 5: e96 http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1755267212000759
TSERPES, G. & MARAVELIAS, C.D. & PANTAZI, M. & PERISTERAKI, P. 2013Distribution of relatively rare demersal elasmobranchs in the eastern Mediterranean.Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 117: 48-53 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2012.09.020
VAUDO, J.J. & HEITHAUS, M.R. 2013 Microhabitat Selection by Marine Mesoconsumers in a Thermally Heterogeneous Habitat: Behavioral Thermoregulation or Avoiding Predation Risk? PLoS ONE, 8 (4): e61907 http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061907
VIANNA, G.M.S. & MEEKAN, M.G. & MEEUWIG, J.J. & SPEED, C.W. 2013Environmental Influences on Patterns of Vertical Movement and Site Fidelity of Grey Reef Sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) at Aggregation Sites. PLoS ONE, 8 (4): e60331http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060331
VIGNAUD, T. & CLUA, E. & MOURIER, J. & MAYNARD, J. & PLANES, S. 2013Microsatellite Analyses of Blacktip Reef Sharks (Carcharhinus melanopterus) in a Fragmented Environment Show. PLoS ONE, 8 (4): e61067 http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061067
WAGNER, C.M. & RICE, P.H. & PEASE, A.P. 2013 First record of dicephalia in a bull shark Carcharhinus leucas (Chondrichthyes: Carcharhinidae) foetus from the Gulf of Mexico, U.S.A. Journal of Fish Biology, 82 (4): 1419-1422 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfb.12064
WAKIDA-KUSUNOKI, A.T. & DE ANDA-FUENTE, D. 2012 Presence of longfin mako shark Isurus paucus (Chondrichthyes: Lamnidae) in the south-eastern Gulf of Mexico, Tabasco, Mexico. Marine Biodiversity Records, 5: e92 http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1755267212000723
WEIGMANN, S. 2013 Species descriptions: Planonasus parini,  In: Database of modern sharks, rays and chimaeras, www.shark-references.com, World Wide Web electronic publication, Version 04/2013
WELLS, R.J.D. & SMITH, S.E. & KOHIN, S. & FREUND, E. & SPEAR, N. & RAMON, D.A. 2013 Age validation of juvenile Shortfin Mako (Isurus oxyrinchus) tagged and marked with oxytetracycline off southern California. Fishery Bulletin, 111 (2): 147-160http://dx.doi.org/10.7755/FB.111.2.3
WENG, K. & HONEBRINK, R. 2013 Occurrence of White Sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) in Hawaiian Waters. Journal of Marine Biology, 2013: ID 598745, 7 pageshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/598745
YAGLIOGLU, D. & TURAN, C. & GURLEK, M. 2013 On the occurrence of the giant devil ray Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre, 1788) from the Mediterranean coast of Turkey – a by-catch documentation. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, in presshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jai.12205


CIELOCHA, J.J. & JENSEN, K. 2012 Stoibocephalum n. gen. (Cestoda: Lecanicephalidea) from the sharkray, Rhina ancylostoma Bloch & Schneider (Elasmobranchii: Rhinopristiformes), from northern Australia. Zootaxa, 3626 (4): 558-568
DE BURON, I. & ROTH, P.B. & BERGQUIST, D.C. & KNOTT, D.M. 2013 Mulinia lateralis (Mollusca: Bivalvia) die-off in South Carolina: discovery of a  vector for two elasmobranch cestode species. Journal of Parasitology, 99 (1): 51-55 http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-3092.1
JACOBSEN, I.P. & SCOTT-HOLLAND, T. & BENNETT, M.B. 2013 Lepadidae barnacles (Lepadiformes: Lepadomorpha) in association with copepods parasitising pelagic elasmobranchs in the Western Pacific. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 47 (1): 120-123 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00288330.2012.732953


ABEL, R.L. & LAURINI, C.R. & RICHTER, M. 2012 A palaeobiologist’s guide to ‘virtual’ micro-CT preparation. Palaeontologia Electronica, 15 (2): 17p
ADOLFSSEN, J. 2012 Palaeoenvironment and Shark Evolution across the K/T-boundary on Southern Zealand. Phd Thesis, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen
BLAZEJOWSKI, B. & DUFFIN, C.J. & GIESZCZ, P. & MAŁKOWSKI, K. & BINKOWSKI, M. & WALCZAK, M. & MCDONALD, S.A. & WITHERS, P.J. 2013 Saurichthys (Pisces, Actinopterygii) teeth from the Lower Triassic of Spitsbergen, with comments on their stable isotope composition (δ13C and δ18O) and X−ray microtomography.  Polish Polar Research, 34 (1): 23-38 http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/popore-2013-0007
CASE, G.R. & CAPPETTA, H. 2013 Ewingia Case & Cappetta , 1997 (Chondrichthyes: Rajiformes), preoccupied by Ewingia pearse , 1929 (Insecta: Arachnida). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie – Abhandlungen, 268 (1): 125-126http://dx.doi.org/10.1127/0077-7749/2013/0320
FISCHER, J. & LICHT, M. & KRIWET, J. & SCHNEIDER, J.W. & BUCHWITZ, M. & BARTSCH, P. 2013 Egg capsule morphology provides new information about the interrelationships of chondrichthyan fishes. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, in presshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14772019.2012.762061
GUINOT, G. & UNDERWOOD, C.J. & CAPPETTA, H. & WARD, D.J. 2013 Sharks (Elasmobranchii: Selachii) from the Late Cretaceous of France and United Kingdom.Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, in press 
LLOYD, G.T. & FRIEDMAN, M. 2013 A survey of palaeontological sampling biases in fishes based on the Phanerozoic record of Great Britain. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 372: 5-17 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2012.07.023
PAULIV, V.E. & DIAS, E.V. & SEDOR, F.A. 2012 A new species of Sphenacanthid (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from the Rio do Rasto Formation (Paraná Basin), southern Brazil. Revisita del Brasileiro de Paleontologia, 15 (3) 243-250
PŘIKRYL, T. & SKUPIEN, P. 2013 Some new Eocene elasmobranch reports from the Outer Western Carpathians (Moravia, Czech Republic). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie – Abhandlungen, 268 (1): 113-123 http://dx.doi.org/10.1127/0077-7749/2013/0322
REES, J. 2012 Palaeoecological implications of neoselachian shark teeth from the Bathonian (Middle Jurassic) ore-bearing clays at Gnaszyn, Kraków-Silesia Homocline, Poland. Acta Geologica Polonica, 62 (3): 397–402 http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/v10263-012-0022-y
UNDERWOOD, C.J. & SCHLOGL, J. 2013 Deep water chondrichthyans from the Early Miocene of the Vienna Basin (Central Paratethys, Slovakia). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, in press http://dx.doi.org/10.4202/app.2011.0101


source: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/04/130410141530.htm

Great white sharks gorge on dead whale blubber

Apr. 10, 2013 — Many terrestrial animals are frequently observed scavenging on other animals- whether it is a hyena stealing a lion kill in the Serengeti or a buzzard swooping down on a dead animal. However, documenting this sort of activity in the oceans is especially difficult, and often overlooked in marine food web studies.

Carcharodon carcharias) scavenging on whales and its potential role in further shaping the ecology of an apex predator," Captain Chris Fallows from Apex Expeditions collaborated with University of Miami (UM) scientists Dr. Neil Hammerschlag and Austin Gallagher, to explore the behaviors of Great white sharks scavenging on dead whales in South Africa. The team documented as many as 40 different sharks scavenging on a carcass over the course of a single day, revealing unique social interactions among sharks.

The study summarized observations based on four scavenging events opportunistically observed over a 10 year period. In each multi-day observation, the team recorded daily evidence of social, aggregative and feeding behaviors observed in the waters off South Africa. They suggest that although the occurrence of coming upon a whale carcass may be sporadic, the shark populations are likely prepared to scavenge on them, and may even rely on their scavenging activities to supplement their regular feeding activities.

"Although rarely seen, we suspect that as white sharks mature, scavenging on whales becomes more prevalent and significant to these species than previously thought," said Hammerschlag, who is director of the R.J. Dunlap Marine Conservation Program at UM.

The team found that sharks showed a clear preference for scavenging on the blubber, probably because these high calorie meals can sustain the sharks for longer periods of time. Interestingly, though, the study also found that sharks showed an initial preference for feeding on the whale's fluke before moving on to feed on the rest of the carcass. The team also found that while scavenging on whales, they ceased hunting and feeding on seals, one of their primary natural prey.

"While scavenging on the whale, the sharks clearly showed a size-based pecking order," said Fallows. "The biggest sharks came right in, targeting areas of highest blubber content, while smaller sharks fed on areas with less blubber or kept their distance from the whale, mostly scavenging on pieces of blubber that drifted away from the carcass."

The paper reveals how the social and size structure of sharks at the carcass appeared to be influenced by environmental patterns. "The cues, such as the oils, emanating from this pulse of food are likely attracting much larger sharks over 4.5 meters from long distances to scavenge," said Gallagher. "These data provide some credence to the hypothesis that large white sharks may be swimming known ocean corridors looking for dead, dying, or vulnerable whales."

"By attracting many large white sharks together to scavenge, we suspect that the appearance of a whale carcass can play a role in shaping the behaviors, movements, and the ecosystem impacts of white sharks" said Hammerschlag. "These patterns may shed some light into the ecology of this often studied -- yet still highly enigmatic -- marine predator."


Journal Reference:

  1. Chris Fallows, Austin J. Gallagher, Neil Hammerschlag.White Sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) Scavenging on Whales and Its Potential Role in Further Shaping the Ecology of an Apex Predator. PLoS ONE, 2013; 8 (4): e60797 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060797

Scientists have explored the behaviors of Great white sharks scavenging on dead whales in South Africa. (Credit: Image courtesy of University of Miami)


source: http://www.sciencedaily.com/


Shark Tooth Weapons Reveal Missing Shark Species in Central Pacific Islands

Apr. 3, 2013 — The Gilbert Island reefs in the Central Pacific were once home to two species of sharks not previously reported in historic records or contemporary studies. The species were discovered in a new analysis of weapons made from shark teeth and used by 19th century islanders, reported in a study published April 3 in the open access journalPLOS ONE by Joshua Drew from Columbia University and colleagues from the Field Museum of Natural History.

Sharks were culturally important to the Gilbertese Islanders; historic records indicate a complex ritual system surrounding shark fishing and making fishing gear and weapons from shark teeth. For the current study, the researchers analyzed a collection of 120 of these weapons from the Field Museum of Natural History, including some that resemble clubs, daggers, lances, spears and swords. They identified eight species of sharks based on the teeth used in these weapons, two of which have never been reported from these waters, in either historical surveys or contemporary analysis. Both these species are currently common in other areas, so while it is possible that these species may still be living undiscovered in the GIlberts, it is more likely that the local populations have been driven to extinction.

"When we looked we found this shadow biodiversity, hints and whispers of what these reefs used to be like. It's our hope that by understanding how reefs used to look we'll be able to come up with conservation strategies to return them to their former vivid splendor," says Drew.

According to the study, sharks in these waters play important ecological and cultural roles, and understanding the historical ecological conditions of these reefs is an important first step in evaluating conservation efforts.

Journal Reference:

  1. Drew J, Philipp C, Westneat MW. Shark Tooth Weapons from the 19th Century Reflect Shifting Baselines in Central Pacific Predator AssembliesPLOS ONE, 2013; 8 (4): e59855 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059855

This is a close up of FMNH 99071 showing how the teeth of Carcharhinus obscurus were attached using braided cord. (Credit: Drew J, Philipp C, Westneat MW (2013) Shark Tooth Weapons from the 19th Century Reflect Shifting Baselines in Central Pacific Predator Assemblies. PLOS ONE 8(4): e59855. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0059855.)


15 important shark conservation and management terms explained with memes

By David Shiffman, on April 1st, 2013


If interested citizens want to get involved in conservation and management policy, it’s absolutely vital to use proper terminology. The policy world can be full of confusing jargon, but there are few ways to discredit yourself in the eyes of decision makers as quickly as using a critical term incorrectly. In fact, it isn’t uncommon for a decision maker’s response to a petition or public comment to consist entirely of correcting  inaccurate terminology, if a response is issued at all. There are well over 100 acronyms and terms that I’ve seen regularly used, but in the interest of brevity, I’ve selected what I believe to be the 15 most important terms that I’ve seen people repeatedly use incorrectly.

For each term, I’ve provided a definition from a scientific paper or technical report whenever possible.  I have also  provided some additional explanation in my own words, and some assistance from familiar memes. Whenever possible, I’ve linked to blog posts, articles, or websites that provide even more information. Most of these terms are broadly applicable to fisheries management policy, but some are specific to shark fisheries. It is not my intention with this post to strongly advocate for or against any specific policy (I do plenty of that with other posts), but to make sure everyone is speaking the same language.

read more: http://www.southernfriedscience.com/?p=14623