Alopias vulpinus

(BONNATERRE, 1788)


Thintail thresher
Classification: Elasmobranchii Lamniformes Alopiidae

Reference of the original description
BONNATERRE, J.P. (1788)
Ichthyologie. Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature. Paris, 215 p., pl. A–B + 1–100.

Image of the original description

Alopias vulpinus (BONNATERRE,1788)

Synonyms / new combinations and misspellings
Alopecias vulpes, Alopias aff. vulpinus, Alopias caudatus, Alopias cf. vulpinus, Alopias greyi, Alopias macrourus, Alopias vulpes, Alopias vulpines, Alopias vulpinnis, Carcharias vulpes, Galeus vulpecula, Squalus alopecias, Squalus vulpes, Squalus vulpinus, Thalassorhinus vulpecula, Vulpecula marina

Types
Alopias vulpinus

Alopias caudatus
Holotype: NMV: 58434 Paratype: NMNZ: ?
Alopias greyi
Holotype: AMNH: ?
Vulpecula marina
Holotype: MCZ: 1166-S;


Description :


Citation: Alopias vulpinus (BONNATERRE, 1788): In: Database of modern sharks, rays and chimaeras, www.shark-references.com, World Wide Web electronic publication, Version 08/2017

Please send your images of "Alopias vulpinus" to info@shark-references.com

Alopias vulpinus (BONNATERRE, 1788); © FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Ebert, D.A. 2014. On Board Guide for the Identification of Pelagic Sharks and Rays of the Western Indian Ocean. Reproduced with permission, illustration by Marc Dando, Wildlife Illustrator
Common names
deu \(T\) Drescher, deu \(T\) Drescherhai, deu \(T\) Fuchshai, deu \(T\) Langschweif, deu \(T\) Seefuchs, spa Azotador, spa Chichi espada, spa Coleto, spa Coludo, spa Coludo pinto, spa Grillo, spa Guadaña, spa Peje sable, spa Peje zorra, spa Peje zorro, spa Pejerrabo, spa Pejezorro, spa Pez espada, spa Pez palo, spa Pez zorro, spa Pichirata, spa Rabo de zorra, spa Raposa, spa Raposa marina, spa Tiburon zorro, spa Tiburón pez zorro, spa Tiburón zorro común, spa Zorra de mar, spa Zorro, spa Zorro blanco, spa Zorro de mar, fra \(T\) Faux, fra \(T\) Loup de mer, fra \(T\) Poisson-épée, fra \(T\) Pèis rato, fra \(T\) Renard, fra \(T\) Renard de mer, fra \(T\) Renard marin, fra \(T\) Requin renard, fra \(T\) Requin-renard, fra \(T\) Singe de mer, fra \(T\) Thon blanc, eng Atlantic thresher, eng Big-eye thresher, eng Common thresher, eng Fox shark, eng Grayfish, eng Green thresher, eng Sea fox, eng Slasher, eng Swingletail, eng Swiveltail, eng Swivetail, eng Thintail thresher, eng Thrasher, eng Thresher, eng Thresher shark, eng Tresher shark, eng Whip-tailed shark, eng Zorro thresher shark, ita Pei ratu, ita Pesce bandiera, ita Pesce pavone, ita Pesce spada, ita Pesce volpe, ita Pesce volpe comune, ita Pesciu rattu, ita Pisce bandiera, ita Pisci bannera, ita Pisci cuda longa, ita Pisci cudutu, ita Pisci sciabula turca, ita Pisci surci, ita Sorcio, ita Squalo volpe, ita Surci "mperiali, ita Volpe, ita Volpe de mar, ita Volpe di mare, por Cacao-raposa, por Cação-pena, por Peixe-rato, por Rabilongo, por Raposo, por Romano, por Romão, por Tubarao-raposo, por Tubarão raposo, por Tubarão-raposa, por Tubarão-zorra, por Tubarão-zorro, por Zoro cauda longa, por Zorra, por Zorro

Short Description
A large thresher with relatively small eyes, curved, narrow-tipped pectoral fins, a narrow-tipped caudal fin, and a conspicuous white patch over the pectoral fin bases [536]. Second dorsal origin well behind the rear tip of the pelvic fin (Ref. 559). Upper lobe of caudal fin very long and strap-like, about as long as or longer than length of rest of shark; lower lobe short but well developed [20050]. Brown, grey, blue-grey, or blackish on back and underside of snout, lighter on sides and abruptly white below; a white area extends from the abdomen over the pectoral-fin bases; pectoral-, pelvic-, and dorsal fins blackish, white dots sometimes present on pectoral-, pelvic-, and caudal- fin tips [20050]. Diet: US. Pacific Coast (data base: 165 stomachs examined, 107 contained food representing a total of 20 taxa): northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) was the most important in the diet (GI1 = 48.2), followed by Pacific hake (Merluccius productus; GI1 = 31.2), Pacific mackerel (Scomber japonicus; GI1 = 24.8), and Pacific sardine (Savdinops sagax; GI1 = 9.2). Of the invertebrates, squid (Teuthoidea, including Loligo opalescenr; GI1 = 6.3), and pelagic red crab (Pleuroncodes planipes; GI1 = 6.6), were also important. [13743]; US. Pacific Coast (difference bettween an cool-water oceanographic regime, July 1999 through May 2000 and an warm-water/transitional period, August 1998 through January 1999): Of the samples examined from the cool-water period, only 8 prey taxa were found, revealing a narrower trophic spectrum than found during the previous warmwater/ transitional period, when 20 prey taxa were identified. As in the warm-water/transitional period, northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) was the most important overall prey, even more dominant than in the previous period. Additionally, market squid (Loligo opalescens) was second in importance and dramatically more prevalent in the cool-water period than in the warm-water/transitional period. Other important diet items in the cool-water period, in descending order of importance, were “unidentified teleosts”; Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax); Pacific hake (Merluccius productus); and Pacific or chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus): these were also among the top six items in the previous warm-water/transitional period. [16893];

Distribution
Cosmopolitan in temperate and tropical seas [1388]. Western Atlantic: Newfoundland, Canada to Cuba, Gulf of Mexico, Venezuela, Brazil to Argentina. Eastern Atlantic: Norway and British Isles to the Mediterranean, Morocco, Ghana and Côte d"quot;Ivoire; also Cape Province, South Africa. Indo-Pacific: scattered localities from the Gulf of Aden and East Africa to the Hawaiian, Society and Fanning islands. Eastern Pacific: Canada to Chile. Population considered reduced (R) in the US Atlantic waters; lower risk/conservation dependent (LR/CD) in US Pacific waters; data deficient (DD) in the rest of Atlantic and rest of Pacific [20064]. Highly migratory species, Annex I of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea [20076]. Source: www.gbif.org

Human uses
fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes

Biology
Ovoviviparous, embryos feed solely on the ova produced by the mother after the yolk sac is absorbed (oophagy) [733], 2 to 4 young in a litter (usually 2) [518]. Size at birth 114-150 cm [518]. Distinct pairing with embrace [17086]. Occurs on the continental shelf and slope (Ref. 75154).

Size / Weight / Age
760 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 6885)); 549 cm TL (female); max. published weight: 348.0 kg (Ref. 40637); max. reported age: 19 years [2246]

Habitat
pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous [17660]; marine; depth range 0 - 550 m [578], usually 0 - 200 m (Ref. 55168)

Parasites (arranged by Jürgen Pollerspöck)
Monogenea
Cestoda
  • Hepatoxylon trichiuri (HOLTEN, 1802) [16112]
  • Heterosphyriocephalus tergestinus (PINTNER, 1913) [16112] [25091]
  • Lacistorhynchus tenuis (VAN BENEDEN, 1858) [16112]
  • Marsupiobothrium alopias YAMAGUTI, 1952 [16129] [16206]
  • Molicola uncinatus (LINTON, 1924) [16129] [16112]
  • Monorygma megacotyla YAMAGUTI, 1952 [16129]
  • Paraorygmatobothrium angustum (LINTON, 1889) RUHNKE, 2011 [16182] [25154]
  • Paraorygmatobothrium exiguum (YAMAGUTI, 1935) [16458] [16387]
  • Paraorygmatobothrium filiforme (YAMAGUTI, 1952) RUHNKE, 1994 [16129] [16443] [16200]
  • Sphyriocephalus viridis (WAGENER, 1854) PINTNER, 1913 [16112]

Trematoda
  • Campula oblonga COBBOLD, 1858 [7600]

Copepoda