Sphyrna zygaena

(LINNAEUS, 1758)


Smooth hammerhead
Classification: Elasmobranchii Carcharhiniformes Sphyrnidae

Reference of the original description
LINNÉ, C. (1758)
Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, regnum animale, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus differentiis synonymis, locis. Ed. X., 1: 824 p. Stockholm (L. SALVIUS).

Image of the original description
No image in first description.

Images of the original description (synonym)
Synonyms / new combinations and misspellings
Cestracion subarcuatus, Cestracion zygaena, Sphyrna aff. zygaena, Sphyrna cf. zygaena, Sphyrna malleus, Sphyrna zigaena, Sphyrna zygena, Sphyrna (Sphyrna) zygaena, Sphyrna (Zygaena) malleus, Sphyrnias zygaena, Squalus malleus, Squalus zygaena, Squalus zygena, Zygaena malleus, Zygaena subarcuata, Zygaena vulgaris, Zygaena zygaena

Types
Sphyrna zygaena
Syntype: NRM: 88;
Zygaena subarcuata
Holotype: MCZ: ?


Description:


Citation: Sphyrna zygaena (LINNAEUS, 1758): In: Database of modern sharks, rays and chimaeras, www.shark-references.com, World Wide Web electronic publication, Version 09/2014

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Sphyrna zygaena (LINNAEUS, 1758), © Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas (CICIMAR-IPN) http://coleccion.cicimar.ipn.mx

Common names
deu \(T\) Gemeiner Hammerfisch, deu \(T\) Gemeiner Hammerhai, deu \(T\) Glatter Hammerhai, deu \(T\) Hammerhai, deu \(T\) Meerschlägel, deu \(T\) Schlägelfisch, spa Cabeza de martillo, spa Cachona, spa Carnuda, spa Corna, spa Cornuda, spa Cornuda cruz, spa Cornuda prieta, spa Cornudilla, spa Cornuilla, spa Cornúa, spa Leunada, spa Martell, spa Martillo, spa Medialuna, spa Pez martillo, spa Sarda de cachas, spa Tailandano, spa Tiburón martillo, spa Tollo cruz, fra \(T\) Cagnole, fra \(T\) Lou peï judiou, fra \(T\) Marteau, fra \(T\) Pantouflier, fra \(T\) Pantouflier lavaco, fra \(T\) Peï jouziou, fra \(T\) Peï martel, fra \(T\) Peïs judieú, fra \(T\) Requin marteau, fra \(T\) Requin marteau lisse, fra \(T\) Requin-marteau commun, fra \(T\) Scroesna, eng Common hammerhead, eng Common hammerhead shark, eng Common smooth hammerhead shark, eng Hammerhead, eng Hammerhead shark, eng Round headed hammerhead, eng Round-headed hammer head shark, eng Round-headed hammerhead, eng Round-headed hammerhead shark, eng Shark, eng Smooth hammerhead, eng Smooth hammerhead shark, ita Capa a martiello, ita Magniusa, ita Magnosa, ita Magnose, ita Magnusa, ita Martello, ita Pei judiu, ita Pesca martello, ita Pesce carabiniere, ita Pesce martello, ita Pesce martiello, ita Pescio scrossua, ita Pisci carabbineri, ita Pisci crozza, ita Pisci marteddu, ita Pisci matteddu, ita Ribello, ita Squalo martello, ita Stampella, por Cambeba, por Cambeva, por Cação-martelo, por Chapéu-armado, por Cornuda, por Cornudo, por Martelo, por Pata, por Peixe martelo, por Peixe-canga, por Peixe-cornudo, por Peixe-martelo, por Tubarão martelo liso, por Tubarão-martelo

Short Description
A large hammerhead with a notch at the center of head; 1st dorsal fin moderately high, 2nd dorsal and pelvic fins low [536]. Olive-grey or dark grey above, white below [536]. Fins nearly plain, dusky or blackish tipped [20050].

Distribution
Widespread in temperate and tropical seas [20050]. Western Atlantic: Canada to the Virgin Islands; Brazil to Argentina. Eastern Atlantic: British Isles to Côte d"quot;Ivoire, including the Mediterranean. Indo-Pacific: South Africa to Sri Lanka; southern Siberia to Viet Nam [20050]; southern Australia, New Zealand, and Hawaii [20050]. Eastern Pacific: northern California, USA to Chile.

Human uses
fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes

Biology
Viviparous, placental [733], with 20 to 50 young per litter [1388]after a gestation period of 10-11 months [2539]. Size at birth between 50-60 cm TL [20050]. A carnivore [17641].

Size / Weight / Age
500 cm TL (male/unsexed; [20241]); max. published weight: 400.0 kg (Ref. 9987)

Habitat
pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous [20050]; brackish; marine; depth range 0 - 200 m [536], usually 0 - 20 m (Ref. 55303)

Parasites (arranged by Jürgen Pollerspöck)
Myxosporea
  • Ceratomyxa mesospora DAVIS, 1917 [21233]
  • Ceratomyxa recurvata DAVIS, 1917 [21233]

Monogenea
Cestoda
Nematoda
  • Contracaecum sp. [17258] [10102] [21220]
  • Parascarophis sphyrnae CAMPANA-ROUGET, 1955 [10102]
  • Porrocaecum sphyrnai LAKSHMI, RAO & SHYARNASUNDARI, 1985 [17029]
  • Pulchrascaris chiloscyllii (JOHNSTON & MAWSON, 1951) [17029]
  • Raphidascaroides zygaenai RAJYALAKSHMI, 1995 [8185]
  • Terranova galeocerdonis (THWAITE, 1927) [17029] [7401]

Acanthocephala
Copepoda