Squalus acanthias

LINNAEUS, 1758


Piked dogfish
Classification: Elasmobranchii Squaliformes Squalidae

Reference of the original description
LINNÉ, C. (1758)
Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, regnum animale, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus differentiis synonymis, locis. Ed. X., 1: 824 p. Stockholm (L. SALVIUS).

Image of the original description
No image in first description.

Synonyms / new combinations and misspellings
Acanthias acanthias, Acanthias americanus, Acanthias lebruni, Flakeus tasmaniensis, Koinga kirki, Koinga lebruni, Koinga whitleyi, Spinax acanthias, Spinax fernandinus, Spinax mediterraneus, Squalus acanthias acanthias, Squalus acanthias africana, Squalus acanthias chilensis, Squalus acanthias ponticus, Squalus acanthius, Squalus aff. acanthias, Squalus barbouri, Squalus cf. acanthias, Squalus cf. fernandinus, Squalus fernandinus, Squalus kirki, Squalus lebruni, Squalus tasmaniensis, Squalus wakiyae, Squalus whitleyi, Squalus (Spinax) acanthias

Types
Squalus acanthias
Syntype: NRM: 85;
Acanthias lebruni
Holotype: MNHN: 1883-0201 or 0202; Paratype: MNHN: 1883-0201 or 0202
Squalus acanthias africana
Holotype: ZMMU: P-15990;
Squalus acanthias ponticus
Holotype: ZMMU: P-15983;
Squalus barbouri
Holotype: MCZ: 1463-S;
Squalus kirki
Syntype: NMV: ?
Squalus tasmaniensis
Holotype: MCZ: 146-S;
Squalus wakiyae
Syntype: ZUMT: 7362 (lost)


Description :


Citation: Squalus acanthias LINNAEUS, 1758: In: Database of modern sharks, rays and chimaeras, www.shark-references.com, World Wide Web electronic publication, Version 03/2017

Please send your images of "Squalus acanthias" to info@shark-references.com

Squalus acanthias LINNAEUS, 1758, Rhode Island, USA © Fredrik Akerman
Common names
deu \(T\) Dornfisch, deu \(T\) Dornhai, deu \(T\) Gefleckter Dornhai, deu \(T\) Gemeiner Dornhai, deu \(T\) Grundhai, deu \(T\) Schillerlocken, spa Cazón espinoso común, spa Galludo, spa Galludo espinoso, spa Mielga, spa Pinchudo, spa Tollo de cachos, fra \(T\) Aiguillat, fra \(T\) Aiguillat commun, fra \(T\) Aiguillat tacheté, eng Blue dog, eng Common spiny fish, eng Darwen salmon, eng Dogfish, eng Flake, eng Grayfish, eng Huss, eng Pacific dogfish, eng Picked dogfish, eng Piked dogfish, eng Rigg, eng Rock salmon, eng Southern spiny dogfish, eng Spiky dog, eng Spiny dogfish, eng Spotted spiny dogfish, eng Spring dogfish, eng Spur dogfish, eng Spurdog, eng Victorian spotted dogfish, eng White-spotted dogfish, eng White-spotted spurdog, eng Whitespotted dogfish, ita Agoggiau, ita Aguggiao rosso, ita Agugliau, ita Agusèo, ita Archilao, ita Arculate, ita Arquilato, ita Asià a muso a schizzo, ita Caddutu, ita Cagnoleto, ita Cagnolo, ita Can bianco, ita Can spinoso, ita Cendroene, ita Centrune, ita Cintroni, ita Cintrune, ita Ferraro, ita Ghialoru "mperiali, ita Ogghialuni, ita Smoca, ita Spinarolo, ita Spinarolo bruno, ita Spinarolo imperiale, ita Spineddu, ita Spinoelo, ita Stiracciole, ita Ugghiarule, ita Ugghiatu, ita Ujato, ita Ujatu, por Cação-bagre, por Cação-de-espinho, por Cação-espinho, por Cação-prego, por Galhudo, por Galhudo-malhado, por Malhado melga

Short Description
This moderately sized species is distinguished by the following set of characters: very slender body, abdomen width 7.2-9.2% TL; narrow head, width at mouth 7.9-10.2% TL; mouth width 1.7-2.2 times its horizontal prenarial length; moderately long snout, preoral length 2.2-2.5 times horizontal prenarial length, 8.5-9.8% TL; single-lobed anterior nasal flap; small dorsal fins, raked, first dorsal-fin height 1.1-1.3 times its inner margin length, second dorsal-fin height 0.7-0.9 times its inner margin length; origin of first dorsal-fin located just posterior to pectoral-fin free rear tips; exposed bases of dorsal-fin spines relatively narrow, 0.4-0.7% TL; short spine of first dorsal fin, exposed length 1.7-2.7% TL; pectoral-fin anterior margin 1.9-3.1 times its inner margin length; preventral caudal margin 1.9-2.6 times inner margin of pelvic fin; pale caudal fin with poorly demarcated, whitish margin, blackish caudal blotch at the apex of upper lobe, anterior margins of both lobes whitish in juveniles; dark caudal bar absent; dorsal and lateral surfaces of body bluish grey with an irregular array of moderately-large white spots; flank denticles tricuspid; monospondylous centra 41-45, precaudal centra 74-79, total centra 100-105 [3326].

Distribution
Western Atlantic: Greenland to Argentina. Eastern Atlantic: Iceland and Murmansk Coast (Russia) to South Africa, including the Mediterranean and Black Sea. Western Pacific: Bering Sea to New Zealand. Reports from off New Guinea are doubtful [1388]. Eastern Pacific: Bering Sea to Chile. Source: www.gbif.org

Human uses
fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes

Biology
Ovoviviparous, with litters of 1 to 20 young. Gestation period of 18 to 24 months, longest known of all chondrichthyans [578]. Size at birth 18-30 cm [578]. Sex ratio at birth is 1:1. The mother shark experiences a series of rhythmic contractions, just like in mammals, and the young are delivered head first. Mating may occur in winter. Common in cold waters; usually at temperatures of 6-15°C (Ref. 5951) and inhabits rocky regions [17641]. A carnivore [17641] and opportunist feeder (Ref. 43115). Feeds on fishes (mackerel, sand lance, silver hake, white hake, haddock, pollock, Atlantic salmon, menhaden, winter flounder and longhorn sculpin), amphipods, crabs, squid, shrimp, polychaete worms, sea anemones, jellyfish, and red, green and brown algae; herring, capelin and cod found to be important foods (Ref. 5951). Newly born are prone to predaceous bony fishes and sharks, while juveniles and adults may fall prey to swordfish and grey seals (Ref. 5951). Parasites of the species include: 1 protozoan, 2 monogeneans, 5 trematodes, 4 cestodes, 5 nematodes, 1 hirudineid and 1 copepod (Ref. 5951).

Size / Weight / Age
160 cm TL (male/unsexed; [518]); 120 cm TL (female); max. published weight: 9,100 g [199]; max. reported age: 75 years (Ref. 39247)

Habitat
benthopelagic; oceanodromous [17660]; brackish; marine; depth range 0 - 1460 m [578], usually ? - 200 m (Ref. 9253)

Dentition
tooth formula (upper/lower): 11-15/11-12 [1131];

Links: SEM-images of teeth

Parasites (arranged by Jürgen Pollerspöck)
Ciliophora
  • Trichodina fultoni DAVIS, 1947 [22626]
  • Trichodina jadranica RAABE, 1958 [22626]

Myxosporea
  • Chloromyxum leydigi MINGAZZINI, 1890 [22626]
  • Chloromyxum ovatum JAMESON, 1929 [22626]
  • Chloromyxum squali GLEESON & ADLARD, 2012 [15542]

Monogenea
Cestoda
Trematoda
  • Hemiurus levinseni ODHNER, 1905 [12575]
  • Otodistomum veliporum (CREPLIN, 1837) STAFFORD, 1904 [12575]
  • Probolitrema philippi WOOLCOCK, 1935 [16602]
  • Probolitrema richiardii (LÓPEZ, 1888) [22626]
  • Prosorhynchus squamatus ODHNER, 1905 [12575]
  • Ptychogonimus megastomum (RUDOLPHI, 1819) [24384]
  • Steganoderma formosum STAFFORD, 1904 [12575]

Nematoda
Copepoda
Isopoda
  • Aega bicarinata LEACH, 1818 [23898]
  • Conilera cylindracea (MONTAGU, 1804) [23898]
  • Natatolana borealis (LILLJEBORG, 1851) [23898]

Hirudinea
  • Cystobranchus vividus VERRILL, 1872 [17101]