NEWSLETTER 11/2013 18.11.2013

Please acknowledge use of the database www.shark-references.com in your publications, and cite: 

Pollerspöck, J. 2013, Bibliography database of living/fossil sharks, rays and chimaeras (Chondrichtyes: Elasmobranchii, Holocephali), www.shark-references.com, World Wide Web electronic publication, Version 2013


new partner:

         Partner in Google-Maps:                           


New images at shark-references:

Many thanks to the following persons for the permission to use their images:

Please support shark-references and send your images to: info@shark-references.com

Missing papers:

Many thanks to all friends of shark-references, who send me some missing papers last month!

Shark-References would kindly like to ask you for your contribution to this project.

Please support www.shark-references.com and send missing papers (not listed papers or papers without the infosymbol) to juergen.pollerspoeck@shark-references.com.




Northeast Pacific Shark Symposium

Saturday, March 22, 2014 8am-5pm

Join us for a series of 5–15-minute “lightning talks” on current Northeast Pacific shark research.

Event background:

Since 2004 the Seattle Aquarium has hosted biennial cowshark conservation workshops to gather shark biologists to share knowledge about these little-known species. Over the years the meeting has increased in size and scope. In December of 2011 the first Pacific Shark Workshop was held in Vancouver, B.C. Because of the success of this meeting and the growth of the cowshark meeting, the Aquarium, in collaboration with the Pacific Shark Research Center at Moss Landing Marine Labs, California and the IUCN Shark Specialist Group Northeast Regional working group, is launching the Northeast Pacific Shark Symposium.

Reservation cost is $40 per person. Click here to register.


News from shark-references:

New feature: Host-Parasites List (new designed) and Parasite-Hosts List

Here you will find now information about parasites
  • Species Descriptions (e.g. extract of Aetobatus narinari)
  • Host-Parasites List (e.g. extract of item "A")
  • Parasite-Hosts List  (e.g. extract of item "A")

New described species/Taxonomic News:


LAST, P.R. & WHITE, W.T. (2013) Two new stingrays (Chondrichthyes: Dasyatidae) from the eastern Indonesian Archipelago. Zootaxa, 3722 (1): 1-21 http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3722.1.1

New species: Dasyatis longicaudaHimantura javaensis

Abstract: Two new stingrays, Dasyatis longicauda sp. nov. and Himantura javaensissp. nov., are described from material collected in the eastern Indonesian Archipelago. These species, which are both relatively small stingrays (both probably smaller than 40 cm DW), have been confused with closest relatives in the region. Dasyatis longicaudasp. nov., known from West Papua, differs from its congener, the Australian endemic D. fluviorum, in having a slightly lower vertebral count, lower pectoral-radial count, a longer tail, larger and less numerous thorns along the mid-disc and tail, as well as a different CO1 Barcode. Himantura javaensis sp. nov., known only from southern Java (near Cilacap), belongs to a complex of small whiprays which also includes another Indonesian species, H. walga. Apart from major differences in squamation and a different CO1 Barcode, Himantura javaensis is more brownish in coloration, has more vertebrae, a longer tail, smaller eye and orbit, more posteriorly positioned sting, shorter adult claspers, shorter pelvic fin, and differs in various measurements around the head.


ELLIOTT, D.K. & HODNETT, J.-P.M. (2013) A New Species of Bransonella (Chondrichthyes, Xenacanthimorpha, Bransonelliformes) from the Middle Permian Kaibab Formation of Northern Arizona. Journal of Paleontology, 87 (6): 1136-1142 http://dx.doi.org/10.1666/12-099

New species: Bransonella tribula

Abstract: Isolated teeth from the Middle Permian (early Guadalupian) Kaibab Formation of Arizona are described as a new species of the xenacanth shark genus Bransonella. Bransonella tribula n. sp. is a small tooth in which the intermediate cusp is 65% of the length of the principal cusps and the cristae on the labial face extend down over the base, covering it, and bifurcating to form distinctive double crested ridges. Fin spines from the same localities in the Kaibab Formation show the characteristic xenacanth feature of a double row of large thorn-like denticles along the posterior margin. Bransonella tribula n. sp. is the only xenacanth shark known from the Kaibab Formation at present, however, due to the lack of articulated material the fin spines are attributed to ?Bransonella tribula n. sp. The ecomorphology of Bransonella suggests a primitive, small, gracile, marine xenacanth that fed near the sea floor like the modern catsharks (Scyliorhinidae).

New Paper

Recent Papers:

AKHILESH, K.V. & BINEESH, K.K. & GANGA, U. & PILLAI, N.G.K. (2013) Report of velvet dogfish, Zameus squamulosus (Günther, 1877) (Somniosidae: Squaliformes) from Indian waters. Indian Journal of Fisheries, 60 (3): 127-129
BANGLEY, C.W. & RULIFSON, R.A. & OVERTON, A.S. (2013) Evaluating the Efficiency of Flushed Stomach-tube Lavage for Collecting Stomach Contents from Dogfish Sharks. Southeastern Naturalist, 12 (3): 523-533 http://dx.doi.org/10.1656/058.012.0305
BARONE, G. & GIACOMINELLI-STUFFLER, R. & STORELLI, M.M. (2013)Comparative study on trace metal accumulation in the liver of two fish species (Torpedinidae): Concentration-size relationship. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 97: 73-77  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2013.07.004
BELLMAN, M.A. & HEERY, E. (2013) Discarding and fishing mortality trends in the US west coast groundfish demersal trawl fishery. Fisheries Research, 147: 115-126 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2013.04.007
CAGUA, E.F. & COCHRAN, J. & ROHNER, C. & IGULU, M.M. & RUBENS, J. & PIERCE, S.J. & BERUMEN, M.L. (2013) Demographics and feeding ecology of whale sharks at Mafia Island, Tanzania. PeerJ PrePrints, 1: e81v2 http://dx.doi.org/10.7287/peerj.preprints.81v2
CAMILIERI-ASCH, V. & KEMPSTER, R.M. &COLLIN, S.P. & JOHNSTONE, R.W. & THEISS, S.M. (2013) A comparison of the electrosensory morphology of a euryhaline and a marine stingray. Zoology (Jena), 116 (5): 270-276 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.zool.2013.05.002
CAUT, S. & JOWERS, M.J. & MICHEL, L. & LEPOINT, G. & FISK, A.T. (2013) Diet- and tissue-specific incorporation of isotopes in the shark Scyliorhinus stellaris, a North Sea mesopredator. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 492: 185-198 http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/meps10478
COUTURIER, L.I.E.  & BENNETT, M.B. & RICHARDSON, A.J. (2013) Mystery of giant rays off the Gaza strip solved. Oryx, 47 (4): 480 
CRESPI-ABRIL, A.C. & PEDRAZA, S.N. & GARCÍA, N.A. & CRESPO, E.A. (2013)Species biology of elasmobranch by-catch in bottom-trawl fishery on the northern Patagonian shelf, Argentina. Aquatic Biology, 19 (3): 239-251 http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/ab00535
CUEVAS, E. & PEREZ, J.C. & MENDEZ, I. (2013) Efecto de factores ambientales y la asignación del esfuerzo pesquero sobre las capturas de la raya Aetobatus narinari (Rajiformes: Myliobatidae) en el sur del Golfo de México. [Effect of environmental factors and fishing effort allocation on catch of the Spotted Eagle Ray Aetobatus narinari (Rajiformes: Myliobatidae) in Southern Gulf of Mexico.] Revista de Biología Tropical, 61 (3): 1341-1349
DALY, R. & FRONEMAN, P.W. & SMALE, M.J. (2013) Comparative Feeding Ecology of Bull Sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) in the Coastal Waters of the Southwest Indian Ocean Inferred from Stable Isotope Analysis. PLoS ONE, 8 (10): e78229 http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078229
DOWNS, D.E. & CHENG, Y.W. (2013) Length–Length and Width–Length Conversion of Longnose Skate and Big Skate Off the Pacific Coast: Implications for the Choice of Alternative Measurement Units in Fisheries Stock Assessment. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 33 (5): 887-893 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02755947.2013.818080
ESCOBAR-SÁNCHEZ, O. & RUELAS-INZUNZA, J. & PATRÓN-GÓMEZ, J.C. & CORRO-ESPINOSA, D. (2013) Mercury levels in myliobatid stingrays (Batoidea) from the Gulf of California: tissue distribution and health risk assessment. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, in press  http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-013-3506-7
FERRANDO, S. & GALLUS, L. (2013) Is the olfactory system of cartilaginous fishes a vomeronasal system? Frontiers in Neuroanatomy, 7: 37 http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnana.2013.00037
GERAGHTY, P.T. & MACBETH, W.G. & HARRY, A.V. & BELL, J.E. & YERMAN, M.N. & WILLIAMSON, J.E. (2013) Age and growth parameters for three heavily exploited shark species off temperate eastern Australia. ICES Journal of Marine Science, in press  http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fst164
GERVELIS, B.J. & NATANSON, L.J. (2013) Age and Growth of the Common Thresher Shark in the Western North Atlantic Ocean. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 142 (6): 1535-1545  http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00028487.2013.815658
HAZIN, F.H.V. & AFONSO, A.S. & DE CASTILHO, P.C. & FERREIRA, L.C. & ROCHA, B.C.L.M. (2013) Regional movements of the tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier, off northeastern Brazil: inferences regarding shark attack hazard. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 85 (3): 1053-1062
HUVENEERS, C. & ROGERS, P.J. & BECKMANN, C. & SEMMENS, J.M. & BRUCE, B.D. & SEURONT, L. (2013) The effects of cage-diving activities on the fine-scale swimming behaviour and space use of white sharks. Marine Biology, 160 (11): 2863-2875  http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-013-2277-6
HUVENEERS, C. & STEAD, J. & BENNETT, M.B. & LEE, K.A. & HARCOURT, R.G. (2013) Age and growth determination of three sympatric wobbegong sharks: How reliable is growth band periodicity in Orectolobidae?. Fisheries Research, 147: 413-425 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2013.03.014
JACOBSEN, I.P. & BENNETT, M.B. (2013) A Comparative Analysis of Feeding and Trophic Level Ecology in Stingrays (Rajiformes; Myliobatoidei) and Electric Rays (Rajiformes: Torpedinoidei). PLoS ONE, 8 (8): e71348 http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071348
JANNOT, J.E. & HOLLAND, D.S. (2013) Identifying ecological and fishing drivers of bycatch in a U.S. groundfish fishery. Ecological Applications, 23 (7): 1645-1658 http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/12-2225.1
KANG, B. (2013) What Do the Occurrences of Migratory Fishes in the Upper Mekong Mean? Ambio, 42 (7): 877-880  http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13280-013-0422-6
KULEY, E. & OZOGUL, F. & BALIKCI, E. & DURMUS, M. & AYAS, D. (2013) The influences of fish infusion broth on the biogenic amines formation by lactic acid bacteria. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 44 (2): 407-415
LAST, P.R. & WHITE, W.T. (2013) Two new stingrays (Chondrichthyes: Dasyatidae) from the eastern Indonesian Archipelago. Zootaxa, 3722 (1): 1-21 http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3722.1.1
LE PORT, A. & PAWLEY, M.D.M. & LAVERY, S.D. (2013) Speciation of two stingrays with antitropical distributions: low levels of divergence in mitochondrial DNA and morphological characters suggest recent evolution. Aquatic Biology, 19 (2): 153-165 http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/ab00518
LEENEY, R.H. & PONCELET, P. (2013) Using fishers’ ecological knowledge to assess the status and cultural
importance of sawfish in Guinea-Bissau. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, in press  http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aqc.2419
LI, Y. & GONG, Y. & CHEN, X. & DAI, X. & ZHU, J. (2013) Trophic ecology of sharks in the mid-east pacific ocean inferred from stable isotopes. Journal of Ocean University of China, in press  http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11802-014-2071-1
LIEBER, L. & BERROW, S. & JOHNSTON, E. & HALL, G. & HALL, J. & GUBILI, C. & SIMS, D.W. & JONES, C.S. & NOBLE, L.R. (2013) Mucus: aiding elasmobranch conservation through non-invasive genetic sampling. Endangered Species Research, 21 (3): 215-222  http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/esr00524
LU, C. & ZHANG, J. & NIE, Z. & CHEN, J. & ZHANG, W. & REN, X. & YU, W. & LIU, L. & JIANG, C. & ZHANG, Y. & GUO, J. & WU, W. & SHU, J. & LV, Z. (2013) Study of MicroRNAs Related to the Liver Regeneration of the Whitespotted Bamboo Shark, Chiloscyllium plagiosum. BioMed Research International, 2013: ID 795676 http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/795676
LYNCH, T.P. & HARCOURT, R. & EDGAR, G. & BARRETT, N. (2013) Conservation of the Critically Endangered Eastern Australian Population of the Grey Nurse Shark (Carcharias taurus) Through Cross-Jurisdictional Management of a Network of Marine-Protected Areas. Environmental Management, in press http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-013-0174-x
MALPICA-CRUZ, L. & HERZKA, S.Z. & SOSA-NISHIZAKI, O. & ESCOBEDO-OLVERA, M.A. (2013) Tissue-specific stable isotope ratios of shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus) and white (Carcharodon carcharias) sharks as indicators of size-based differences in foraging habitat and trophic level. Fisheries Oceanography, 22 (6): 429-445  http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/fog.12034
MOORE, A.B.M. & ALMOJIL, D. & HARRIS, M. & JABADO, R.W. & WHITE, W.T. (2013) New biological data on the rare, threatened shark Carcharhinus leiodon (Carcharhinidae) from the Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea. Marine and Freshwater Research, in press  http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/MF13160
MOORE, D.M. & NEAT, F.C. & MCCARTHY, I.D. (2013) Population biology and ageing of the deep water sharks Galeus melastomus, Centroselachus crepidater and Apristurus aphyodes from the Rockall Trough, north-east Atlantic. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 93 (7): 1941-1950 http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315413000374
NATANSON, L.J. & GERVELIS, B.J. (2013) The Reproductive Biology of the Common Thresher Shark in the Western North Atlantic Ocean. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 142 (6): 1546-1562 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00028487.2013.811099
RAVITCHANDIRANE, V. & YOGAMOORTHI, A. & THANGARAJ, M. (2013)Pharmacological investigation and spectral characterization of bioactive compounds from crude extracts of sting ray, Dasyatis jenkinsii (Annandale, 1909). Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines, 11 (5): 500-505  http://dx.doi.org/10.3724/SP.J.1009.2013.00500
RODRÍGUEZ-CABELLO, C. & PÉREZ, M. & SÁNCHEZ, F. (2013) New records of chondrichthyans species caught in the Cantabrian Sea (southern Bay of Biscay).Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 93 (7): 1929-1939 http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025315413000271
ROGERS, P.J. & WARD, T.M. & VAN RUTH, P.D. & WILLIAMS, A. & BRUCE, B.D. & CONNELL, S.D. & CURRIE, D.R. & DAVIES, C.R. & EVANS, K. & GILLANDERS, B.M. & GOLDSWORTHY, S.D. & GRIFFIN, D.A. & HARDMAN-MOUNTFORD, N.J. & IVEY, A.R. & KLOSER, R.J. & MIDDLETON, J.K. & RICHARDSON, A.E. & ROSS, A. & TANNER, J.E. & YOUNG, J. (2013) Physical processes, biodiversity and ecology of the Great Australian Bight region:a literature review. CSIRO, Australia, ISBN: 9781486300969
RUELAS-INZUNZA, J. & ESCOBAR-SÁNCHEZ, O. & PATRÓN-GÓMEZ, J. & MORENO-SÁNCHEZ, X.G. & MURILLO-OLMEDA, A. & SPANOPOULOS-HERNÁNDEZ, M. & CORRO-ESPINOSA, D. (2013) Mercury in muscle and liver of ten ray species from Northwest Mexico. Marine Pollution Bulletin, in press http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.09.010
SICILIANO, A.M. & KAJIURA, S.M. & LONG, J.H. & PORTER, M.E. (2013) Are You Positive? Electric Dipole Polarity Discrimination in the Yellow Stingray, Urobatis jamaicensis. Biological Bulletin, 225 (2): 85-91 
SMITH, W.D. & MILLER, J.A. & HEPPELL, S.S. (2013) Elemental Markers in Elasmobranchs: Effects of Environmental History and Growth on Vertebral Chemistry.PLoS ONE, 8 (10): e62423  http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062423
THONHAUSER, K.E. & GUTNICK, T. &BYRNE, R.A. & KRAL, K. &BURGHARDT, G.M. & KUBA, M.J. (2013) Social learning in Cartilaginous fish (stingrays Potamotrygon falkneri). Animal Cognition, 16 (6): 927-932 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10071-013-0625-z
WALSH, C.J. & LUER, C.A. & YORDY, J.E. & CANTU, T. & MIEDEMA, J. & LEGGETT, S.R. & LEIGH, B. & ADAMS, P. & CIESLA, M. & BENNETT, C. & BODINE, A.B. (2013) Epigonal Conditioned Media from Bonnethead Shark, Sphyrna tiburo, Induces Apoptosis in a T-Cell Leukemia Cell Line, Jurkat E6-1. Marine Drugs, 11 (9): 3224-3257  http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md11093224
WALTER, R.P. & KESSEL, S.T. & ALHASAN, N. & FISK, A.T. & HEATH, D.D. & CHEKCHAK, T. & KLAUS, R. & YOUNIS, M. & HILL, G. & JONES, B. & BRAUN, C.D. & BERUMEN,M.L. & DIBATTISTA, J.D. & PRIEST, M.A. & HUSSEY, N.E. (2013) First record of living Manta alfredi × Manta birostris hybrid. Marine Biodiversity, in press  http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12526-013-0183-2
WARD-PAIGE, C.A. & DAVIS, B. & WORM, B. (2013) Global Population Trends and Human Use Patterns of Manta and Mobula Rays. PLoS ONE, 8 (9): e74835 http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0074835
WIRTZ, P. & BRITO, A. & FALCÓN, J.M. & FREITAS, R. & FRICKE, R. & MONTEIRO, V. & REINER, F. & TARICHE, O. (2013) The coastal fishes of the Cape Verde Islands – new records and an annotated check-list (Pisces). Spixiana, 36 (1): 113-142 

Recent -Abstracts-:

BLACK, M.P. & GROBER, M. & SCHREIBER, C. & COCO, C. & DOVE, A. (2013)Whale shark (Rhincodon typus) behavior: A multi-year analysis of individuals at Georgia Aquarium. Abstract. PeerJ PrePrints, 1: e88v1 http://dx.doi.org/10.7287/peerj.preprints.88v1
MCKINNEY, J. & HOFFMAYER, E.R. & HOLMBERG, J. & GRAHAM, R. & DE LA PARRA, R. & GALVAN PASTORIZA, B. & FOX, S. & PIERCE, S. & DOVE, A.D.M. (2013) Regional connectivity of whale sharks demonstrated using photo-identification – Western Atlantic, 1999 - 2013. Abstract. PeerJ PrePrints, 1: e98v1 http://dx.doi.org/10.7287/peerj.preprints.98v1
MCKINNEY, J.A. & HOFFMAYER, E.R. & FRANKS, J.S. & HENDON, J.M. & DRIGGERS, W.B. (2013) Seasonal habitat use of whale sharks in the northern Gulf of Mexico, USA 2003 - 2013. Abstract. PeerJ PrePrints, 1: e93v1 http://dx.doi.org/10.7287/peerj.preprints.93v1


ADOLFSSEN, J. & WARD, D.J. (2013) Crossing the boundary: an elasmobranch fauna from Stevns Klint, Denmark. Palaeontology, in press http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pala.12079
BICE, K.N. & SHIMADA, K. & KIRKLAND, J.I. (2013) Late Cretaceous Marine Fishes from the Upper Greenhorn Limestone in Southeastern Nebraska. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, 116(1-2): 22-26  http://dx.doi.org/10.1660/062.116.0104
DIEDRICH, C.G. (2013) Evolution of white and megatooth sharks, and evidence for early predation on seals, sirenians, and whales. Natural Science, 5 (11): 1203-1218 http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ns.2013.511148
ELLIOTT, D.K. & HODNETT, J.-P.M. (2013) A New Species of Bransonella (Chondrichthyes, Xenacanthimorpha, Bransonelliformes) from the Middle Permian Kaibab Formation of Northern Arizona. Journal of Paleontology, 87 (6): 1136-1142 http://dx.doi.org/10.1666/12-099
GUINOT, G. & ADNET, S. & CAVIN, L. & CAPPETTA, H. (2013) Cretaceous stem chondrichthyans survived the end-Permian mass extinction: Nature Communications, 4: 2669  http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms3669
HERMAN, J. & VAN WAES, H. (2013) Special Paper: The living and fossil Neoselachii and Batoidei. Géominpal Belgica, Special Paper: 18p. PDF. (January 2013)
HERMAN, J. & VAN WAES, H. & DOUTRELEPONT, H. & KENIS, L. & VAN NUFFEL, J. & CLOETENS, J. & VANDERHOEFT, E. & VERVOENEN, M. (2013)Additional Contributions to the Knowledge of the Sediments, Taphonomy, Ichnofossils, Bacteria, Invertebrata, Vertebrata, Algae and Plantae of the Sint  Niklaas Phosphorite Bed in its type locality: Sint Niklaas (Eastern Flanders, Belgium) – VertebrataGéominpal Belgica, 5.3: 248 p. (including 114 plates). PDF. (September 2013)
SACH, V.J. (2013) Fossilienkatalog der Molasse in SW-Deutschland. electronic version: http://www.oberschwaben-portal.de/ (PDF-Version 05/2013)
SCHNEIDER, C. & LADWIG, J. (2013) Fossilien aus dem Campan von Hannover - Fische (Pisces). Arbeitskreis Paläontologie Hannover, 292 Seiten (A4), Hannover 2013, 3., komplett überarbeitete Auflage, 2013, ISBN 978-3-938385-57-9: 257-270
TAPANILA, L. & PRUITT, J. (2013) Unraveling Species Concepts for the Helicoprion Tooth Whorl. Journal of Paleontology, 87 (6): 965-983  http://dx.doi.org/10.1666/12-156


source: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/north/arctic-mystery-fish-identified-1.2428592

comment (Jürgen Pollerspöck, shark-references): I think it is Rhinochimaera atlantica HOLT & BYRNE, 1909

Arctic mystery fish identified


A University of Windsor researcher has identified a strange fish caught recently in Nunavut waters. 

Nigel Hussey, a researcher who works with the Ocean Tracking Network, says the fish some speculated was a goblin shark is actually the mysterious "long-nosed chimaera" — mysterious because they're rarely caught.


Long-nosed chimaera

This fish was caught recently by a Nunavut fishing boat, somewhere in Davis Strait. (Jutai Korgak, facebook)


"Only one of these fish has previously been documented from the Hudson Strait," Hussey says. "Potentially, if we fish deeper, maybe between 1,000 and 2,000 metres, we could find that's there's actually quite a lot of them there. We just don't know."

Hussey says the long-nosed chimera is related to sharks and stingrays. It's got a whip-like tail and a long nose. They typically grow to be about a metre long.

The fish was caught by a Nunavut fishing boat, somewhere in Davis Strait. A photo of the creature went viral, after it was posted online.


source: http://news.ca.msn.com/top-stories/prehistoric-sharks-escaped-mass-extinction-by-diving-deeper

Prehistoric sharks escaped mass extinction by diving deeper

An artist's illustration of a falcatid shark, one of the three cladodontomorph shark species discovered. These species of sharks were smaller, had unique teeth, and often sported hook-like dangles above their head — unlike modern shark species.

An artist's illustration of a falcatid shark, one of the three cladodontomorph shark species discovered. These species of sharks were smaller, had unique teeth, and often sported hook-like dangles above their head — unlike modern shark species.

The most severe extinction in the earth's history began 252 million years ago, wiping out 90 percent of ocean species and 70 percent of life on land. Modern sharks and their relatives were among the few that survived this "Great Dying," and new fossil finds hint as to how they may have clung on to life. 

A paleontological dig site in southern France, containing sediment from a much younger Cretaceous ocean floor, now have yielded fossilized teeth of a tiny shark relative, indicating that the fish found refuge by swimming to deeper oceans. 

The collection of millimeter-long teeth belong to three species of cladodontomorph sharks — not massive fish like we know them to be, but tiny, inch-long swimmers — relatives of modern sharks, skates and rays. They thrived in the Permian ocean prior to the extinction and researchers had thought they had perished in the Great Dying — until they were found in soil that was 135 million years fresh.

The tiny sharks, fleeing the acidic coastal waters of the end-Permian, moved to deeper oceans, and lived there for a hundred million years, Guillaume Guinot, a researcher at the Natural History Museum in Geneva, Switzerland, and his colleagues explain in the Tuesday issue of Nature Communications

"It changes our view of how dramatic this extinction event was," Guinot told NBC News. The find suggests that there may be many more fishes living in deep ocean sediment deposits that haven’t been found yet, and that may indicate that the "extinction wasn’t that dramatic for cartilaginous fishes." 

The new findings also allow for the possibility that modern sharks survived the die off in a similar way, by moving to deep open ocean that was perhaps less changed. "These are just ideas," he clarified, because there is no hard, ossified evidence that modern sharks also swam to deeper oceans and died (and fossilized) there. 

More about shark origins:

In addition to Guillaume Guinot, the authors of "Cretaceous stem chondrichthyans survived the end-Permian mass extinction" include Sylvain Adnet, Lionel Cavin and Henri Cappetta.

Nidhi Subbaraman writes about science and technology. You can follow her on FacebookTwitter and Google+.


source: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/11/131113182429.htm

The Big Fish That Got Away… (It Was Let Go)

Nov. 13, 2013 — It's not every day that fishermen catch the world's largest fish species in their nets, but this is what recently happened in Indonesia's Karimunjawa National Park, according to the Wildlife Conservation Society.

While catching anchovies and small bait fish in a stationary net off the coast of Java on October 8th, a group of fishers discovered a much larger animal in their lift net -- a juvenile whale shark measuring four meters in length (more than 13 feet). The fishers were then able to quickly alert staff members from the Karimunjawa National Park Authority and WCS using a text message system first established for reporting fishing violations.

"Whale sharks have not been common in these waters over the past decade, so the appearance of this animal in a coastal net is a surprise," said Stuart Campbell of WCS's Marine Program. "Fortunately, the SMS (Short Message Service) set up to report fishery violations enabled rangers from the national park service and WCS to respond to this accidental incident fast enough to release the animal."

Staff members from both the park authority and WCS arrived at the scene in the early morning after receiving texts from the fishers, who were both concerned about the possibility of getting in trouble for inadvertently catching the shark and unsure of how to release it. The whale shark was released soon after.

Campbell and other members of WCS's Indonesia Program think the presence of the shark may indicate the ecological recovery of Karimunjawa waters due to changes in fishing regulations. Over the past three years, a series of no-take reserves have been established as well as a total ban on destructive trawl nets that destroy seabed habitat in coastal areas, both of which have led to a boost in local fishery production.

With training from WCS and RARE, fishers now use the SMS "hotline" to report fishing violations and marine animal strandings to park authorities instantaneously. The innovation has led to a remarkable increase in compliance with fishery closures throughout the park. The new system has also led to the prosecution of illegal trawl fishing by the park authority, that has previously decimated local fish populations. Data from WCS and government agencies now show a 50 percent increase in local fish populations over the past three years, which in turn is bringing whale sharks back into the area most likely due to the increase in prey, which can include plankton, small fish, and fish eggs. The whale sharks occur in Karimunjawa National Park from September to November, a period that coincides with high local fishery production.

"Using texts to respond to fishing violations and strandings has greatly increased the efficiency of regulatory enforcement in Karimunjawa," said Dr. Caleb McClennen, Director of WCS's Marine Program. "This low-cost system is helping to bring ecological balance back to the coastal waters of Java and is boosting fishing productivity as well."

Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Wildlife Conservation Society.

Note: Materials may be edited for content and length. For further information, please contact the source cited above.


Copyright © 2013 Shark-References, All rights reserved.