JORDAN, D.S. & GILBERT, C.H. (1881)
Notes on the fishes of the Pacific coast of the United States. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 4: 29–70
JORDAN, D.S. & EVERMANN, B.W. (1896)
The fishes of North and Middle America: a descriptive catalogue of the species of fish-like vertebrates found in the waters of North America, north of the Isthmus of Panama. Part I. Bulletin of the United States National Museum, 47: 1–1240
FOWLER, H.W. (1910)
Notes on batoid fishes. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 62: 468–475
STARKS, E.C. (1918)
The skates and rays of California, with an account of the ratfish. California Fish and Game, 4 (1): 1–16
Observations on the Nidamental Glands of Hydrolagus colliei, Raja rhina and Platyrhinoidis triseriatus. Copeia, 1: 54–57