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Bibliography Database of living/fossil sharks, rays and chimaeras

(Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii, Holocephali)


published by


in cooperation with

Shark-References is an online database that contains scientific bibliography on recent and fossil sharks, skates, rays and chimaeras (cartilaginous fishes, Chondrichthyes). The database started in June 2009 with a data inventory of about 1,000 scientific quotations. Since then, it has expanded continuously, and today holds more than 30,000 data inputs. At the beginning, the concept intended a scientific bibliography only, but in the meantime the provided information has also extended to other related topics.

Bibliography Bibliography:
In addition to standard biographical information such as author, year of publication, title, location, DOI, abstract, the bibliography also offers keywords like  “time”, “place”, “names of species” and “synonyms”.

List of authors List of authors:
In this list you can browse authors`names.

 Type data base:Type data base
Information on particular types of first descriptions (holotypes, paratypes, etc.) either originates from first descriptions directly or comes from the type database (Menu: Type database). This database lists all types with more than 6,200 entries and links to the collection locations of specimens. More information is provided by clicking  the info symbol. Further, species information and site of first record of more than 3,000 types are shown in a Google-map.

List of species/Species Descriptions Species descriptions:
The species description provides the user with all available information on a particular species. Along with first description data (as for synonyms) relevant type information is also included. The linked type data base holds more than 7,000 types entries with detailed information such as age, sex, place of first record,geographic coordinates and parasites.

Many thanks to the following authors for writing species descriptions (number of species description in brackets):
Clinton Duffy (1), Simon Weigmann (1)


Parasites Host-Parasite List and Parasite-Host List of Elasmobranchs: 
In this two lists you will find information about parasites of Elasmobranchs 


Digital versions of first descriptions:
The menu item “bibliography – first description” contains numerous digitalized first descriptions of fossil species. Among others, historic publications are featured (e.g. Louis Agassiz, Recherches sur les poissons fossiles. Volume 3, 1843).

How you can help:
Shark-References would kindly like to ask you for your contribution to this project. Users can participate in many ways:

  • Please send us missing references (mail).
  • Send us your publications that are not incorporated so far (which is indicated by the missing info symbol at the quotation).
  • Pictures of sharks, skates, rays and chimaeras are needed. Authors will be credited (email).
  • Should you notice mistakes, encounter incomplete links, or or experience any access problems, please let us know (email).
  • You have information for the monthly newsletter? Please send an email.
  • Subscribe to our monthly newsletter, or visit us on facebook regularly, and tell your friends.

Partner Organisations (complete list of partners):


  Universität Hamburg -Zoologisches Museum Hamburg- Institut für Geologie und Paläontologie Münster  

Verband Deutscher Sporttaucher e.V. SOS Support our Sharks The tresher shark project The Irish Elasmobranch Group 

Foundation For Oceans of the Future  Condros - Grupo de Estudio de Peces Cartilaginosos 

 Divers for Sharks  



Stellaris  Australian Shark Information System (ASIS) Sharklab International 


    Talking Oceans   Shark Share Global 

L'Elasmogrup  Oceania Chondrichthyan Society  Angel Shark Project Sharks And Rays Australia

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute Catsharks, Institute of Marine Sciences (ICM-CSIC), Barcelona (Spain)

Save Our Seas Foundation Fundación Alium Pacific 

Gesellschaft für Ichthyologie Odontobase Project Bimini Biological Field Station Foundation  

Sharks Educational Institute    Chondrolab

Sharkproject Germany e.V.     


 Sharkman's World Colección Ictiológica, Museo de Zoología, Universidad de Costa Rica Marinelife Alliance       



  • Deutsche Elasmobranchier-Gesellschaft e.V. (D.E.G.) (Homepage)
  • Shark Specialist Group (IUCN) (Homepage)
  • Zoologisches Museum Hamburg (Homepage)
  • Maldives Whale Shark Research Programme (MWSRP) (Homepage)
  • Fundación Squalus (Homepage)
  • Institut für Geologie und Paläontologie Münster (Homepage)
  • Verband Deutscher Sporttaucher e.V. Offenbach (Homepage)
  • SOS Support our Sharks (Homepage)
  • The Thresher Shark Research & Conservation Project (Homepage)
  • The Irish Elasmobranch Group (Homepage)
  • Foundation For Oceans of the Future (Homepage)
  • Laboratório "Genômica Integrativa", Universidade Estadual Paulista, Brazil (Homepage)
  • CONDROS - Grupo de Estudio de Peces Cartilaginosos, Argentina
  • Mondo Marino Aquarium (Homepage)
  • Philippine Journal of Science, Science and Technology Information Institute, Department of Science and Technology, Taguig City, Philippines (Homepage)
  • Divers for Sharks (Homepagefacebook)
  • Marine Megafauna Foundation (Homepagefacebook)
  • Geosciences Collection of the University of Bremen (Homepage)
  • Institute of Geology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, V.V.I., Praha (Homepage)
  • Corsica - Mediterranean Shark Research Group (Homepage)
  • South East Queensland Tiger Shark Research (Homepage)
  • Tiburón Ballena México/Whale Shark México, La Paz, Baja California Sur 23090, Mexico (Homepage)
  • The Shark Baselines Project (twitter) of the Hopkins Marine Station of Stanford University
  • Museum of Eastern Bohemia, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic (Homepage)
  • Conservar Tiburones en Argentina (Homepage)
  • Canary Islands Shark Alliance (Alianza por los Tiburones de Canarias)
  • Centro Studi Squali – Shark Study Center, Massa Marittima, Tuscany, Italy (website/facebook/info)
  • Australian Shark Information System (ASIS) (Homepage)
  • Sharklab International, 404 Sqaq Il Forn, HMR 1961 Il-Hamrun, Malta (Homepage: Sharklab Malta/Sharklab Adria/facebook)
  • ElasmoCan, Canary Islands (
  •, Stockholm, Sweden
  • Elasmo Project (Homepagefacebook)
  • Wildlife Marine, Perth, Australia (Homepage)
  • Portuguese Association for the Study and Conservation of Elasmobranchs (APECE) (Homepagefacebook)
  • Talking Oceans, Bogotá, Colombia (facebook)
  • Shark Share Global, Australia (homepage)
  • Grup d'Estudi d'Elasmobranquis, University of Valencia (facebook)
  • Oceania Chondrichthyan Society (webpagefacebook)
  • Catsharks, Institute of Marine Sciences (ICM-CSIC), Barcelona (Spain) (facebook)
  • Angel Shark Project (website)
  • Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama (website)
  • Save Our Seas Foundation (SOSF) (website)
  • Sharks And Rays Australia (SARA) (website)
  • Fundación Alium Pacific (website/facebook)
  • Gesellschaft für Ichthyologie (website)
  • Odontobase project by Dr Pascal Deynat (facebook)
  • Bimini Biological Field Station Foundation (websitefacebook)
  • Sharks Educational Institute (facebook)
  • Sharkproject Germany e.V. (website/facebook)
  • iSea a watchful eye for the protection of aquatic ecosystems (website/facebook)
  • Chondrolab (Laboratorio de Biología y Conservación de Condrictios) (website/facebook)
  • Ente Fauna Marina Mediterranea (website/facebook)
  • Sharkman's World, Malta  (website)
  • Colección Ictiológica, Museo de Zoología, Universidad de Costa Rica (website)
  • Marinelife Alliance, Bangladesh (website)
  • Shark Citizen (website)
  • Science Saves Sharks, Shark and Ray Research Group at Stellenbosch University (Instagram)
  • Shark Museum, Simon's Town, South Africa (website)


(Pollerspöck, J. & Straube, N. 2023,, World Wide Web electronic publication, Version 2023)