NEWSLETTER 04/2014 25.04.2014
Pollerspöck, J. 2014, Bibliography database of living/fossil sharks, rays and chimaeras (Chondrichtyes: Elasmobranchii, Holocephali), www.shark-references.com, World Wide Web electronic publication, Version 2014
New images at shark-references:
Many thanks to the following persons for the permission to use their images:
- Marcelo R. de Carvalho, Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil for images of Potamotrygon pantanensis sp. nov.
and Potamotrygon amandae sp.nov:
- William T. White and Peter Last, CSIRO Marine & Atmospheric Research, Wealth from Oceans Flagship, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia for permission to use the images of the CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Papers at shark-references.com, e.g. Rhynchobatus springeri sp. nov.:
- Eustratios S. Papoutsoglou, Greece for the images of Alopias superciliosus:
- Antonio Toscano Grande, Universidad de Huelva for image of Echinorhinus blakei AGASSIZ, 1856:
Please support shark-references and send your images to: firstname.lastname@example.org
Many thanks to all friends of shark-references, who send me some missing papers last month!
Shark-References would kindly like to ask you for your contribution to this project.
At the moment I search e.g. the following papers:
SMITH, J.L.B. 1936 Two interesting new fishes from South Africa. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa, 24 (1): 1-6, Pls. 1-2
MAO, Y. & MA Q. & FENG Q. 2013 Discovery of Fish Microremains in the Gufeng Formation at the Luojiaba Section from Jianshi, West Hubei. Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica, 30 (2): 175-183
Please support www.shark-references.com and send missing papers (not listed papers or papers without the infosymbol) to email@example.com.
The KwaZulu-Natal Sharks Board is pleased to confirm that the second Sharks International symposium will be held in Durban, South Africa on 2-6 June 2014. This is a sequel to the highly successful inaugural Sharks International meeting in Cairns, Australia in June 2010. The meeting will comprise four full days of presentations, commencing Monday 2 June and ending Friday 6 June, with Wednesday 4 June set aside for a variety of exciting mid-conference excursions.
The aim of this conference is to provide a forum for the world’s leading shark and ray researchers, along with students and early career scientists to meet, share ideas, update information and report on the progress of their most recent scientific studies. We would encourage any researchers and students with a general interest in the marine environment to also attend as networking opportunities at a conference of this nature and size are enormous.
For further information please visit the Symposium’s web page at:
Any queries regarding the symposium can also be sent to the organising committee at:
IV Encuentro Colombiano sobre Condrictios:
place: Universidad EAFIT de Medellín, Colombia
date: 20. - 24. October 2014
The Dutch Elasmobranch Society is proud to host the 18th Annual Scientific Conference of the European Elasmobranch Association from 7th to 9th November 2014 at the Van Hall Larenstein University of Applied Sciences in Leeuwarden, The Netherlands.
EEA 2014 European Elasmobranch Association – Annual Scientific Conference 18 years on – Prepared for the Future
Elasmobranchs are increasingly included in high level policy agreements. The conference will provide a platform for those involved in international science and policy and aims to help coordinate the information necessary for the development and implementation of management measures for rays and sharks in European waters. EEA 2014 will be of interest to all those who are involved in the study, management and conservation of chondrichthyans (sharks, skates, rays and chimaeras).
The three-day conference will include theme sessions on policy making, restoration measures, integrated management, husbandry and captive management, tagging and other subjects. The collection, availability and sharing of data will be an underlying theme. There will be plenary talks, a poster session and opportunities for networking and socialising. In addition an excursion will be offered on the last day.
Leeuwarden is a vibrant town with a charming centre and a wide selection of hotels and restaurants. It is the capital city of the northern Province of Fryslân and will be the Cultural Capital of Europe in 2018. There is a twice hourly train service from Schiphol (one direct, one with one connection) and it is easy to reach by road. See www.elasmobranch.nl/eea2014 for preliminary details on the conference.
New described species/Taxonomic News:
CHIQUILLO, K.L. & EBERT, D.A. & SLAGER, C.J. & CROW, K.D. (2014): The secret of the mermaid’s purse: Phylogenetic affinities within the Rajidae and the evolution of a novel reproductive strategy in skates. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, in press
Abstract: The systematics of the skates in the family Rajidae have been contentious for over 250 years, with most studies inferring relationships among geographically clustered species, and non-overlapping taxa and data sets. Rajid skates are oviparous, and lay egg capsules with a single embryo. However, two species exhibit a derived form of egg laying, with multiple embryos per egg capsule. We provide a molecular assessment of the phylogenetic relationships of skates in the family Rajidae based on three mitochondrial genes. The resulting topology supports monophyly the family. However the genus Raja is polyphyletic, and several species assemblages need to be revised. We propose a new assemblage, the Rostrajini, which organizes rajid species into three well-supported tribal lineages for the first time. Further, these data provide an independent assessment of monophyly for the two species exhibiting multiple embryos per egg capsule, supporting their status as the unique genus Beringraja. In addition, we find that among the different size classes of egg capsules, ranging from 1 to 8 embryos per capsule in this genus, there is variation in frequency and survivorship. In Beringraja binoculata, the strategy of having two embryos per egg capsule occurs most frequently and with the highest fitness.
SCHAEFFNER, B.C. (2014): Review of the genus Eutetrarhynchus Pintner, 1913 (Trypanorhyncha: Eutetrarhynchidae), with the description of Eutetrarhynchus beveridgei n. sp. Systematic Parasitology, 87 (3): 219-229
New species: Eutetrarhynchus beveridgei
Abstract: The genus Eutetrarhynchus Pintner, 1913 is revised. Eutetrarhynchus beveridgei n. sp. is described from the spiral intestine of the dwarf whipray, Himantura walga (Müller & Henle) (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae), from the South China Sea off the Malaysian part of Borneo. The new species is characterised by a slender, elongate scolex, two oval bothria, muscular bulbs, retractor muscles inserting at the base of the bulbs, and the presence of gland-cells and prebulbar organs. The tentacular armature is typical heteroacanthous with heteromorphous hooks. Eutetrarhynchus beveridgei n. sp. is allocated to the genus due to its distinct segment morphology featuring two internal seminal vesicles and scattered testes occupying the complete intervascular space. It differs from congeners in its relatively small size, much smaller scolex regions and in the presence of a basal armature with a distinct basal swelling. Eutetrarhynchus cortezensis Friggens & Duszynski, 2005 is transferred to Dollfusiella Campbell & Beveridge, 1994, as D. cortezensis n. comb., on the basis of its segment morphology, with testes in a linear arrangement and the absence of internal seminal vesicles. A new generic diagnosis and a key for the identification of species of Eutetrarhynchus is provided.
GOTTFRIED, M.D. & FORDYCE, E. (2014): A Late Triassic chimaeroid egg capsule from New Zealand: early evidence of chimaeroid reproductive mode from the eastern margin of Gondwana. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, in press
New species: Chimaerotheca reperepe
Abstract: A Late Triassic chimaeroid egg capsule from the South Island of New Zealand is described as Chimaerotheca reperepe, a new ichnospecies. The fossil egg capsule is preserved as a positive impression on a block of very fine sandstone from the Murihiku Terrane of the South Island, which is dated as Warepan or Otapirian in the local New Zealand stage system, equivalent to late Norian or Rhaetian internationally. The egg capsule impression is spindle-shaped and consists of a narrow flask-like central embryo chamber surrounded by a ribbed membrane, or collarette. Morphologically, the fossil is strikingly similar to egg capsules of the extant chimaeroid Callorhinchus, with which it shares several features in the context of a recent phylogenetic analysis of chondrichthyan egg capsules. The specimen represents the oldest formally described record of a chondrichthyan from New Zealand, and extends the southern Gondwanan fossil record of chimaeroids by approximately 100 million years. In terms of chimaeroid palaeobiology, this fossil occurrence provides clear evidence that Callorhinchus-like chimaeroids have employed a highly conserved reproductive mode throughout at least the last 200-plus million years of the group's history, and further demonstrates that Callorhinchus or a Callorhinchus-like chimaeroid was present by the Late Triassic along the eastern margin of Gondwana.
PRADEL, A. & MAISEY, J.G. & TAFFOREAU, P. & MAPES, R.H. & MALLATT, J. (2014): A Palaeozoic shark with osteichthyan-like branchial arches. Nature, in press
New genus: Ozarcus
New species: Ozarcus mapesae
Abstract: The evolution of serially arranged, jointed endoskeletal supports internal to the gills—the visceral branchial arches—represents one of the key events in early jawed vertebrate (gnathostome) history, because it provided the morphological basis for the subsequent evolution of jaws1, 2, 3, 4, 5. However, until now little was known about visceral arches in early gnathostomes6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, and theories about gill arch evolution were driven by information gleaned mostly from both modern cartilaginous (chondrichthyan) and bony (osteichthyan) fishes. New fossil discoveries can profoundly affect our understanding of evolutionary history, by revealing hitherto unseen combinations of primitive and derived characters18, 19. Here we describe a 325 million year (Myr)-old Palaeozoic shark-like fossil that represents, to our knowledge, the earliest identified chondrichthyan in which the complete gill skeleton is three-dimensionally preserved in its natural position. Its visceral arch arrangement is remarkably osteichthyan-like, suggesting that this may represent the common ancestral condition for crown gnathostomes. Our findings thus reinterpret the polarity of some arch features of the crown jawed vertebrates and invert the classic hypothesis, in which modern sharks retain the ancestral condition3, 20. This study underscores the importance of early chondrichthyans in resolving the evolutionary history of jawed vertebrates.
BUSTAMANTE, C. & VARGAS-CARO, C. & BENNETT, M.B. (2014): Biogeographic patterns in the cartilaginous fauna (Pisces: Elasmobranchii and Holocephali) in the southeast Pacific Ocean. PeerJ PrePrints, 2: e298v1 http://dx.doi.org/10.7287/peerj.preprints.298v1
CAGUA, E.F. & COLLINS, N.M. & HANCOCK, J. & REES, R. (2014): Visitation and economic impact of whale shark tourism in a Maldivian marine protected area. PeerJ PrePrints, 2: e360v1 http://dx.doi.org/10.7287/peerj.preprints.360v1
CARVALHO, F. & AHRENS, R. & MURIE, D. & PONCIANO, J.M. & AIRES-DA-SILVA, A. & MAUNDER, M.N. & HAZIN, F. (2014): Incorporating specific change points in catchability in fisheries stock assessment models: An alternative approach applied to the blue shark (Prionace glauca) stock in the south Atlantic Ocean. Fisheries Research, 154: 135–146 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2014.01.022
CHIQUILLO, K.L. & EBERT, D.A. & SLAGER, C.J. & CROW, K.D. (2014): The secret of the mermaid’s purse: Phylogenetic affinities within the Rajidae and the evolution of a novel reproductive strategy in skates. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, in press http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2014.01.012
CHRISTIANSEN, H.M. & LIN, V. & TANAKA, S. & VELIKANOV, A. & MOLLET, H.F. & WINTNER, S.P. & FORDHAM, S.V. & FISK, A.T. & HUSSEY, N.E. (2014): The Last Frontier: Catch Records of White Sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. PLoS ONE, 9 (4): e94407 http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094407
CONRATH, C.L. & TRIBUZIO, C.A. & KENNETH, J. (2014): Notes on the Reproductive Biology of Female Salmon Sharks in the Eastern North Pacific Ocean.Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 143 (2): 363-368 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00028487.2013.862179
CROSSLEY, R. & COLLINS, C.M. & SUTTON, S.G. & HUVENEERS, C. (2014):Public Perception and Understanding of Shark Attack Mitigation Measures in Australia.Human Dimensions of Wildlife: An International Journal, 19 (2): 154-165 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10871209.2014.844289
DAVIES, T.K. (2014): Social Media Monitors the Largest Fish in the Sea. American Scientist, 102: 116-123 http://dx.doi.org/10.1511/2014.107.116
DE JONGE, H.R. & TILLY, B.C. & HOGEMA, B.M. & PFAU, D.J. & KELLEY, C.A. & KELLEY, M.H. & MELITA, A.M. & MORRIS, M.T. & VIOLA, R.M. & FORREST, J.N. (2014): cGMP inhibition of type 3 phosphodiesterase is the major mechanism by which C-type natriuretic peptide activates CFTR in the shark rectal gland. American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology, 306 (4): C343-C353 http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00326.2013
FRIEDRICH, L.A. & JEFFERSON, R. & GLEGG, G. (2014): Public perceptions of sharks: Gathering support for shark conservation. Marine Policy, 47: 1-7 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2014.02.003
GARDINER, J.M. & ATEMA, J. & HUETER, R.E. & MOTTA, P.J. (2014):Multisensory Integration and Behavioral Plasticity in Sharks from Different Ecological Niches. PLoS ONE, 9 (4): e93036 http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0093036
GUTTRIDGE, T.L. & BROWN, C. (2014): Learning and memory in the Port Jackson shark, Heterodontus portusjacksoni. Animal Cognition, 17 (2): 415-425 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10071-013-0673-4
HERMAN, J. & VAN WAES, H. (2014): Short addition to Géominpal Belgica. 6: Comments and reflections on existing Distribution Maps. Géominpal Belgica, 6 (addition): 30 pp
KADRI, H. & MAROUANI, S. & BRADAI, M.N. & BOUAÏN, A. & MORIZE, E. (2014):Distribution and Morphometric Characters of the Mediterranean Brown Ray, Raja miraletus (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae) in the Gulf of Gabes (Tunisia, Central Mediterranean). American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 2 (2): 45-50 http://dx.doi.org/10.11648/j.ajaf.20140202.15
KNEEBONE, J. & CHISHOLM, J. & SKOMAL, G. (2014): Movement patterns of juvenile sand tigers (Carcharias taurus) along the east coast of the USA. Marine Biology, in press http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-014-2407-9
LACROIX, G.L. (2014): Large pelagic predators could jeopardize the recovery of endangered Atlantic salmon. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 71 (3): 343-350 http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjfas-2013-0458
LIU, J.L. & ZABETAKIS, D. & BROWN, J.C. & ANDERSON, G.P. & GOLDMAN, E.R. (2014): Thermal stability and refolding capability of shark derived single domain antibodies. Molecular Immunology, 59 (2): 194–199
LU, Z. & FISK, A.T. & KOVACS, K.M. & LYDERSEN, C. & MCKINNEY, M.A. & TOMY, G.T. & ROSENBURG, B. & MCMEANS, B.C. & MUIR, D.C.G. & WONG, C.S. (2014): Temporal and spatial variation in polychlorinated biphenyl chiral signatures of the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) and its arctic marine food web.Environmental Pollution, 186: 216-225 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2013.12.005
MARCOTTE, M.M. (2014): Homing in the New Zealand eagle ray, Myliobatis tenuicaudatus. Marine and Freshwater Research, 65 (4): 306-311 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/MF12288
MCKENZIE, R.W. & MOTTA, P.J. & ROHR, J.R. (2014): Comparative squamation of the lateral line canal pores in sharks. Journal of Fish Biology, in press http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfb.12353
MCMEANS, B.C. & ARTS, M.T. & FISK, A.T. (2014): Impacts of food web structure and feeding behavior on mercury exposure in Greenland Sharks (Somniosus microcephalus). Science of The Total Environment, in press http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.01.128
MEJÍA-FALLA, P.A. & NAVIA, A.F. & LOZANO, R. & TOBÓN-LÓPEZ, A. & NARVÁEZ, K. & MUÑOZ-OSORIO, L.A. & MEJÍA-LADINO, L.M. & LÓPEZ-GARCÍA, J. (2014): Uso de hábitat de Triaenodon obesus (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae), Rhincodon typus (Orectolobiformes: Rhincodontidae) y Manta birostris (Myliobatiformes: Myliobatidae) en el Parque Nacional Natural Gorgona, Pacífico colombiano [Habitat use by Triaenodon obesus (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae), Rhincodon typus (Orectolobiformes: Rhincodontidae) and Manta birostris (Myliobatiformes: Myliobatidae) in Gorgona Island National Natural Park, Colombian Pacific Ocean]. Revista de Biologia Tropical, 62 (1): 329-342
NAH, G.S.S. & LIM, Z.W. & TAY, B.-H. & OSATO, M. & VENKATESH, B. (2014):Runx Family Genes in a Cartilaginous Fish, the Elephant Shark (Callorhinchus milii).PLoS ONE, 9 (4): e93816 http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0093816
PEKLOVA, I. & HUSSEY, N.E. & HEDGES, K.J. & TREBLE, M.A. & FISK, A.T. (2014): Movement, depth and temperature preferences of an important bycatch species, Arctic skate Amblyraja hyperborea, in Cumberland Sound, Canadian Arctic.Endangered Species Research, 23 (3): 229-240 http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/esr00563
POISSON, F. & FILMALTER, J.D. & VERNET, A.-L. & DAGORN, L. (2014): Mortality rate of silky sharks (Carcharhinus falciformis) caught in the tropical tuna purse seine fishery in the Indian Ocean. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, in press http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjfas-2013-0561
POISSON, F. & SÉRET, B. & VERNET, A.-L. & GOUJON, M. & DAGORN, L. (2014): Collaborative research: Development of a manual on elasmobranch handling and release best practices in tropical tuna purse-seine fisheries. Marine Policy, 44: 312–320 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2013.09.025
REYIER, E.A. & FRANKS, B.R. & CHAPMAN, D.D. & SCHEIDT, D.M. & STOLEN, E.D. & GRUBER, S.H. (2014): Regional-Scale Migrations and Habitat Use of Juvenile Lemon Sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) in the US South Atlantic. PLoS ONE, 9 (2): e88470 http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088470
ROCHA, S. & CASAL, G. & AL-QURAISHY, S. & AZEVEDO, C. (2014): Morphological and Ultrastructural Redescription of Chloromyxum leydigi Mingazzini, 1890 (Myxozoa: Myxosporea), Type Species of the Genus, Infecting the Gall Bladder of the Marine Cartilaginous Fish Torpedo Marmorata Risso (Chondrichthyes: Torpedinidae), from the Portuguese Atlantic Coast. Folia Parasitologica, 61 (1): 1-10 http://dx.doi.org/10.14411/fp.2014.006
ROTEM, N. & SESTIERI, E. & HOUNSGAARD, J. & YAROM, Y. (2014): Excitatory and inhibitory synaptic mechanisms at the first stage of integration in the electroreception system of the shark. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, 8: 72 http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2014.00072
SAGARESE, S.R. & FRISK, M.G. & CERRATO, R.M. & SOSEBEE, K.A. & MUSICK, J.A. & RAGO, P.J. (2014): Application of generalized additive models to examine ontogenetic and seasonal distributions of spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) in the Northeast (US) shelf large marine ecosystem. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, in press http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjfas-2013-0342
SAGARESE, S.R. & FRISK, M.G. & MILLER, T.J. & SOSEBEE, K.A. & MUSICK, J.A. & RAGO, P.J. (2014): Influence of environmental, spatial, and ontogenetic variables on habitat selection and management of spiny dogfish in the Northeast (US) shelf large marine ecosystem. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 71 (4): 567-580 http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjfas-2013-0259
SERRA-PEREIRA, B. & ERZINI, K. & MAIA, C. & FIGUEIREDO, I. (2014):Identification of Potential Essential Fish Habitats for Skates Based on Fishers’ Knowledge. Environmental Management, 53 (5): 985-998 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-014-0257-3
SHRIKANYA, K.V.L. & SUJATHA, K. (2014): Reproductive biology of the mottled electric ray, Torpedo sinuspersici Olfer, 1831 (Pisces: Torpedinidae) off Visakhapatnam, India. Indian Journal of Fisheries, 61 (1) : 16-20
TORRES, P. & TRISTÃO DA CUNHA, R. & MAIA, R. & DOS SANTOS RODRIGUES, A. (2014): Trophic ecology and bioindicator potential of the North Atlantic tope shark. Science of The Total Environment, 481: 574–581 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.02.091
TSAI, W.-P. & SUN, C.-L. & PUNT, A.E. & LIU, K.-M. (2014): Demographic analysis of the shortfin mako shark, Isurus oxyrinchus, in the Northwest Pacific using a two-sex stage-based matrix model. ICES Journal of Marine Science, in press http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsu056
VAUDO, J.J. & WETHERBEE, B.M. & HARVEY, G. & NEMETH, R.S. & AMING, C. & BURNIE, N. & HOWEY-JORDAN, L.A. & SHIVJI, M.S. (2014): Intraspecific variation in vertical habitat use by tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) in the western North Atlantic. Ecology and Evolution, in press http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.1053
WHITE, E.R. & NAGY, J.D. & GRUBER, S.H. (2014): Modeling the population dynamics of lemon sharks. PeerJ PrePrints, 2: e364v1 http://dx.doi.org/10.7287/peerj.preprints.364v1
WHITE, J. & SIMPFENDORFER, C.A. & TOBIN, A.J. & HEUPEL, M.R. (2014): Age and growth parameters of shark-like batoids. Journal of Fish Biology, in press http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfb.12359
YANG, L. & MATTHES-ROSANA, K.A. & NAYLOR, G.J.P. (2014): Determination of complete mitochondrial genome sequence from the holotype of the southern Mandarin dogfish Cirrhigaleus australis (Elasmobranchii: Squalidae). Mitochondrial DANN, in press http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/19401736.2014.908360
ZAPATA-HERNANDEZ, G. & SELLANES, J. & THURBER, A.R. & LEVIN, L.A. & CHAZALON, F. & LINKE, P. (2014): New insights on the trophic ecology of bathyal communities from the methane seep area off Concepcion, Chile (similar to 36 degrees S). Marine Ecology, 35 (1): 1-21 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/maec.12051
SCHAEFFNER, B.C. (2014): Review of the genus Eutetrarhynchus Pintner, 1913 (Trypanorhyncha: Eutetrarhynchidae), with the description of Eutetrarhynchus beveridgei n. sp. Systematic Parasitology, 87 (3): 219-229 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-014-9476-5
WEAVER, H.J. & SMALES, L.R. (2014): Two Species of Acanthocephala (Rhadinorhynchidae and Transvenidae) from Elasmobranchs from Australia.Comparative Parasitology, 81 (1): 110-113 http://dx.doi.org/10.1654/4654.1
GOTTFRIED, M.D. & FORDYCE, E. (2014): A Late Triassic chimaeroid egg capsule from New Zealand: early evidence of chimaeroid reproductive mode from the eastern margin of Gondwana. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, in press http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14772019.2014.880752
KOCSIS, L. & GHEERBRANT, E. & MOUﬂIH, M. & CAPPETTA, H. & YANS, J. & AMAGHZAZ, M. (2014): Comprehensive stable isotope investigation of marine biogenic apatite from the late Cretaceous–early Eocene phosphate series of Morocco.Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 394: 74–88 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2013.11.002
PRADEL, A. & MAISEY, J.G. & TAFFOREAU, P. & MAPES, R.H. & MALLATT, J. (2014): A Palaeozoic shark with osteichthyan-like branchial arches. Nature, in press http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature13195
VULLO, R. & ABIT, D. & BALLÈVRE, M. & BILLON-BRUYAT, J.-P. & BOURGEAIS, R. & BUFFETAUT, E. & DAVIERO-GOMEZ, V. & GARCIA, G. & GOMEZ, B. & MAZIN, J.-M. & MOREL, S. & NÉRAUDEAU, D. & POUECH, J. & RAGE, J.-C. & SCHNYDER, J. & TONG, H. (2014): Palaeontology of the Purbeck-type (Tithonian, Late Jurassic) bonebeds of Chassiron (Oléron Island, western France).Comptes Rendus Palevol, in press http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crpv.2014.03.003
Ancient shark fossil reveals new insights into jaw evolution
Date: April 16, 2014
Source: American Museum of Natural History
Summary: The skull of a newly discovered 325-million-year-old shark-like species suggests that early cartilaginous and bony fishes have more to tell us about the early evolution of jawed vertebrates -- including humans -- than do modern sharks, as was previously thought. The new study shows that living sharks are actually quite advanced in evolutionary terms, despite having retained their basic 'sharkiness' over millions of years.
This photo shows the exceptionally well-preserved fossil of Ozarcus mapesae from two different lateral views. The scale bar is 10 millimeters.
Credit: Copyright AMNH/F. Ippolito
The skull of a newly discovered 325-million-year-old shark-like species suggests that early cartilaginous and bony fishes have more to tell us about the early evolution of jawed vertebrates -- including humans -- than do modern sharks, as was previously thought. The new study, led by scientists at the American Museum of Natural History, shows that living sharks are actually quite advanced in evolutionary terms, despite having retained their basic "sharkiness" over millions of years. The research is published today in the journal Nature.
"Sharks are traditionally thought to be one of the most primitive surviving jawed vertebrates. And most textbooks in schools today say that the internal jaw structures of modern sharks should look very similar to those in primitive shark-like fishes," said Alan Pradel, a postdoctoral researcher at the Museum and the lead author of the study. "But we've found that's not the case. The modern shark condition is very specialized, very derived, and not primitive."
The new study is based on an extremely well-preserved shark fossil collected by Ohio University professors Royal Mapes and Gene Mapes in Arkansas, where an ocean basin once was home to a diverse marine ecosystem. The fossilized skull of the new species, named Ozarcus mapesae, along with similar specimens from the same location, were part of a recent donation of 540,000 fossils from Ohio University to the Museum.
The heads of all fishes -- sharks included -- are segmented into the jaws and a series of arches that support the jaw and the gills. These arches are thought to have given rise to jaws early in the tree of life.
Because shark skeletons are made of cartilage, not bone, their fossils are very fragile and are usually found in flattened fragments, making it impossible to study the shape of these internal structures. But the Ozarcus mapesae specimen was preserved in a nearly three-dimensional state, giving researchers a rare glimpse at the organization of the arches in a prehistoric animal.
"This beautiful fossil offers one of the first complete looks at all of the gill arches and associated structures in an early shark. There are other shark fossils like this in existence, but this is the oldest one in which you can see everything," said John Maisey, a curator in the Museum's Division of Paleontology and one of the authors on the study. "There's enough depth in this fossil to allow us to scan it and digitally dissect out the cartilage skeleton."
Working with scientists at the European Synchrotron, the ESRF, Pradel imaged the specimen with high-resolution x-rays to get a detailed view of each individual arch shape and organization. "We discovered that the arrangement of the arches is not like anything you'd see in a modern shark or shark-like fish," said Pradel. "Instead, the arrangement is fundamentally the same as bony fishes."
The authors say it's not unexpected that sharks -- which have existed for about 420 million years -- would undergo evolution of these structures. But the new work, especially when considered alongside other recent developments about early jawed vertebrates, has significant implications for the future of evolutionary studies of this group. "Bony fishes might have more to tell us about our first jawed ancestors than do living sharks," Maisey said.
- Alan Pradel, John G. Maisey, Paul Tafforeau, Royal H. Mapes, Jon Mallatt. A Palaeozoic shark with osteichthyan-like branchial arches. Nature, 2014; DOI:10.1038/nature13195
Biggest great white shark ever tagged in Australia off coast of WA
- Date: April 10, 2014
The massive female, estimated to weigh about 1.6 tonnes, is the biggest ever internally tagged in Australia, and one of the largest in the world. Photo: Fisheries WA
The tagging of a huge five-metre white pointer in King George Sound has presented a potentially huge breakthrough in shark research and a triumph for local Fisheries staff.
The massive female great white, estimated to weigh about 1.6 tonnes, was the biggest ever internally tagged in Australia, and one of the largest in the world.
The shark was measured at 5.04m to the fork in its tail, suggesting an overall length of around 5.3m.
Shark Monitoring Network project manager Mark Kleeman said internally tagging a white pointer of this size was almost unprecedented. Photo: Scott Coghlan
It took three Fisheries staff two-and-a-half hours to subdue the shark, which was hooked close to Mistaken Island in around 15 metres of water on Sunday, March 30.
The same shark had been externally tagged the previous Wednesday when it approached a Fisheries vessel close to Limestone Head, and then set off receivers at Ellen Cove on the following Thursday and Friday, leading to beach closures.
The great white took a salmon bait, culminating in it being fitted with an internal tag to help monitor its movements for up to 10 years.
Shark Monitoring Network project manager Mark Kleeman said internally tagging a white pointer of that size was almost unprecedented and a cause for celebration.
"This is very exciting and potentially a world first," he said.
"It is something we have been striving for and it is great to prove we can handle an animal of that size.
"The main thing is that tracking larger animals opens up a whole new world.
"Lots of juveniles have been tagged, but to have a fully-mature female and get 10 years of data out of it is a big thing for us.
"We are excited by the potential of what this shark can give us."
The shark was caught using 14-16mm rope attached to 3mm cable, and a hook considerably smaller than that with which Premier Colin Barnett infamously posed a few months ago.
After the shark was finally subdued, Fisheries staff had to attach three ropes around it and roll it upside down.
However, once it was upside down the shark went into a state of "tonic immobility", similar to being asleep.
That enabled Fisheries workers, aboard a 6m vessel not much bigger than the shark, to make a small incision in its stomach without lifting it out of the water and insert the tag.
The whole process took about five minutes.
Mr Kleeman said only about 340 sharks of various species, including a small number of white pointers, had been tagged in Australian waters.
While there has been so much attention on the drum line program off the west coast, Fisheries staff in Albany have been putting in long hours to quietly tag these sharks, which are around in good numbers at the moment, possibly due to the salmon schools in the area.
However, it did not make them easy to catch.
Mr Kleeman said there had only been five great whites tagged in Albany over the last 12 months and 17 along the south coast since 2009, making each successful tagging significant.
When this newly-tagged great white comes close to the network of receivers dotted along the southern WA coastline from east of Albany to Ocean Reef, Fisheries will receive instant notification of its location.
The shark remains in King George Sound. It set off receivers again earlier this week. Beaches were reopened on Tuesday.
"We will be able to see where it is travelling and how often," Mr Kleeman said.
"We will get a good picture of the movements of this particular animal.
"Over time we will be able to build the data and then we can see if there are any patterns forming, which is a great start for understanding more about them."
The satellite-linked network is part of a long-term project to help scientists better understand the movements of tagged white sharks through WA waters as well as improve safety at Western Australian beaches.
Along with the satellite-linked receivers, there are also more than 320 seabed monitors located off various parts of the WA coast which also record movements of tagged sharks.
External tags on great whites usually only last around two years, making internal tags the preferred option.
Mr Kleeman said it was believed female great whites didn't mature until 15-20 years of age, with this shark estimated at being more than 30 years of age.
"It is the first one we have caught of breeding size," he said.
"It had signs of mating scars, with bites down one side."
They also took DNA samples from the shark to enable researchers to study genetics, with the east and west coast appearing to have separate populations.
Mr Kleeman said it was interesting the shark set off the receivers near Middleton Beach at 4.41pm on Thursday and 4.42pm on Friday, possibly suggesting a pattern of behaviour.
He asked anyone who saw a great white report it to the water police immediately on 9442 8600, as sighting reports from members of the public remain a vital contribution to coastal safety.
- The Great Southern Weekender
Read more: http://www.watoday.com.au/wa-news/biggest-great-white-shark-ever-tagged-in-australia-off-coast-of-wa-20140410-36eqx.html#ixzz2zsCCj7jE
Reef fish arrived in two waves, before and after mass extinction 66 million years ago
Date: April 10, 2014
Source: University of California - Davis
Summary: The world's reefs are hotbeds of biological diversity, including over 4,500 species of fish. A new study shows that the ancestors of these fish colonized reefs in two distinct waves, before and after the mass extinction event about 66 million years ago that wiped out the dinosaurs.
Researchers traced reef fish ancestry by developing a comprehensive family tree of the major group of modern ocean fish.
Credit: © Mexrix / Fotolia
The world's reefs are hotbeds of biological diversity, including over 4,500 species of fish. A new study shows that the ancestors of these fish colonized reefs in two distinct waves, before and after the mass extinction event about 66 million years ago that wiped out the dinosaurs.
Reef fish represent one of the largest and most diverse assemblages of vertebrates, according to Samantha Price, a postdoctoral researcher in the Department of Evolution and Ecology at UC Davis. Price is first author on a paper describing the work, published April 2 in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B.
The fossil record of reef fish is patchy, so Price and colleagues traced their ancestry by developing a comprehensive family tree of the major group of modern ocean fish, the acanthomorphs or "spiny-finned fish," and calculating the times when different groups migrated into or out of reef habitats.
The first wave of colonization occurred between 70 and 90 million years ago, before the end of the Cretaceous period, they found. At that time, most the world's reefs were built not by coral but by mollusks called rudists.
Rudists disappeared in the mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous, 66 million years ago, and corals became the world's great reef builders. While the first-wave reef fish hung on to leave descendants in the present, a second wave of colonization took place as the world recovered from the extinction event.
The early wave of colonization began with lots of different-looking fish and over time there was an eventual filling of ecological niches accompanied by a decrease in colonization, Price said.
By about 50 million years ago, the fundamentals of modern coral reefs, including the ancestors of most major families, such as clownfishes and parrotfishes, were in place, Price said.
"If you were able to dive on a coral reef 50 million years ago, the fishes would seem familiar, you would recognize it as similar to a modern reef," she said.
- S. A. Price, L. Schmitz, C. E. Oufiero, R. I. Eytan, A. Dornburg, W. L. Smith, M. Friedman, T. J. Near, P. C. Wainwright. Two waves of colonization straddling the K-Pg boundary formed the modern reef fish fauna. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 2014; 281 (1783): 20140321 DOI:10.1098/rspb.2014.0321