Echinorhinus brucus

(Bonnaterre, 1788)

Bramble shark
Classification: Elasmobranchii Echinorhiniformes Echinorhinidae

Reference of the original description
Bonnaterre, J.P. (1788)
Ichthyologie. Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature. Paris, 215 p., pl. A–B + 1–100.

Image of the original description
No image in first description.

Images of the original description (synonym)
Synonyms / new combinations and misspellings
Echinorhinus cf. brucus, Echinorhinus obesus, Echinorhinus spinosus, Echinorhinus (Rubusqualus) mccoyi, Scymnus spinosus, Squalus brucus, Squalus spinay, Squalus spinosus

Echinorhinus brucus

Echinorhinus obesus
XXXX: No types known;
Echinorhinus (Rubusqualus) mccoyi
Holotype: NMV: 50760
Squalus spinosus
XXXX: No types known;

Description :

Citation: Echinorhinus brucus (Bonnaterre, 1788): In: Database of modern sharks, rays and chimaeras,, World Wide Web electronic publication, Version 06/2024

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Echinorhinus brucus (Bonnaterre, 1788), © FAO,
Common names
deu \(T\) Alligatorhai, deu \(T\) Brombeerhai, deu \(T\) Nagelhai, deu \(T\) Stachelhai, spa Pex tachuela, spa Pez clavo, spa Pez tachuela, spa Rubioca, spa Tiburón de clavos, spa Tiburón espinoso, fra \(T\) Chenille, fra \(T\) Squale bouclé, eng Bramble shark, eng Mango-tara, eng Spinous shark, eng Spiny shark, ita Ronco, por Peixe-prego, por Prego, por Tubarâo-prego, Murruna tax-xewk (malta)

Short Description
The bramble shark Echinorhinus brucus has thorn-like denticles on body which are very large (single denticles up to about 15mm in basal diameter in adults), sparse irregularly distributed and thorn-like with smooth basal margins, some bases fused into compound plates. Dorsal surface dark purplish-grey to brown with white denticles, ventral surface paler; sides and back may have dark spots. Tooth count 20-26/21-26.As with the other member of the family Echinorhinidae, it has a relatively short snout and stout body; two small spineless dorsal fins, close together, towards posterior part of body and originating behind pelvic fin origin. No anal fin and subterminal notch on caudal fin. Small spiracles, very short labial furrows and teeth on both jaws alike, with a central oblique bladelike cusps with up to 3 cusplets on each side (absent in juveniles) [518] [1388] [536].

Western Atlantic: Virginia, Massachusetts, USA; Argentina. Eastern Atlantic: North Sea to Mediterranean, Morocco to Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Western Indian Ocean: India, Mozambique, South Africa. Western Pacific: Japan, southern Australia, New Zealand. Records from Oman and Kiribati uncertain. Apparently absent in the Eastern Pacific (Ref. 6578).
First records: 2011: Oman Sea, Iran [13495]; 2014: southern Coastal Waters of Oman in the Arabian Sea [20606]; Lakshadweep Islands, India [20583];
2021: record from Pazhaiyar Fish Landing Centre, Tamil Nadu, East coast of India, India (ID by images) Source:

Human uses
fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; price category: not marketed/unknown; price reliability:

Ovoviviparous. 15 to 26 young in a litter [578]. Size at birth between 29 and 90 cm. Distinct pairing with embrace [17086]. Size at maturity unknown but adult males of 150 cm and adult females of 213 cm have been reported [1388]. Found on the continental shelf and slope (Ref. 75154).

Size / Weight / Age
310 cm TL (male/unsexed; [518])

bathydemersal; marine; depth range 10 - 900 m [17736], usually 350 - 900 m [432]

tooth formula (upper/lower): 10-14/9-13 [1131];

Links: SEM-images of teeth

shark-references Species-ID=2061;

Parasites (arranged by Jürgen Pollerspöck)
  • Erpocotyle dollfusi (Price, 1942) [17150]