Etmopterus gracilispinis

KREFFT, 1968


Broadbanded lanternshark
Classification: Elasmobranchii Squaliformes Etmopteridae

Reference of the original description
KREFFT, G. (1968)
Neue and erstmalig nachgewiesene Knorpelfische aus dem Archibenthal des Südwestantlantiks, einschließlich einer Diskussion einiger Etmopterus-Arten südlicher Meere. Archiv für Fischereiwissenschaft, 19 (1): 42 p.

Image of the original description
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Description :


Citation: Etmopterus gracilispinis KREFFT, 1968: In: Database of modern sharks, rays and chimaeras, www.shark-references.com, World Wide Web electronic publication, Version 09/2019

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Etmopterus gracilispinis KREFFT, 1968, © FAO, www.fish-base.org
Common names
spa Tollo lucero bandoneado, fra \(T\) Sagre rubané, eng Broadband dogfish, eng Broadband lantern fish, eng Broadband lantern shark, eng Broadbanded lanternshark

Short Description
Field marks and Diagnostic Features after EBERT & STEHMANN, 2013 [17836]: A small stout bodied species with a short slender tail; a short, bulbous stout, and a very short gill openings. Lateral trunk denticles irregular. A blackish brown body dorsally becoming black ventrally, with an inconspicuous elongated black flank markings extending anterior and posteriorly; anterior marking longer than posterior. Diagnostic Features: Head fairly deep and flattened–conical; head relatively long, 22 to 25% of total length and about 2.7 times in snout–vent length; head width about 1.3 times preoral snout; head low with height about 9% of total length. Prespiracular length subequal to spiracle–pectoral space. Snout somewhat bulbous; preoral length short and about 9% of total length. Eyes narrow and elongated–oval; upper eyelid without a pale naked patch. Gill openings about as wide as spiracle; width of third gill opening one–third eye length or less. Mouth relatively broad and 1.5 times eye length. Upper teeth generally with less than 3 pairs of cusplets and with cusps greatly expanded, about 2.5 times higher than adjacent cusplets; condition of upper teeth in mature males uncertain. Total tooth row counts upper jaw 24 to 27, lower jaw 25 to 32. Body moderately firm, cylindrical, not compressed, and moderately slender. Predorsal spine length about 39 to 41% of total length; interdorsal space less than prebranchial length and subequal to prespiracular space; pectoral–pelvic space about 1.3 times head length in adults; snout tip to rear flank marking base slightly greater than snout tip to second dorsal–fin spine origin; dorso–caudal space 9 to 12% of total length and about 1.6 in interdorsal space; pelvic–caudal space 15 to 16% of total length, about 1.5 times first dorsal–fin length, about 1.1 times interdorsal space, shorter than prebranchial length and much shorter than head, and 1.4 to 1.6 in pectoral–pelvic space. No rows of greatly enlarged denticles on flanks above pectoral fins; denticles largely covering underside of snout; denticles not in regular longitudinal rows on head, flanks, caudal peduncle, and caudal base; denticles present on second dorsal fin, apparently densely covering it; lateral trunk denticles short, small and slender, closely spaced, with very slender, high, hooked conical crowns. Distal margins of fins fringed with a broad band of naked ceratotrichia. Pectoral fin small with anterior margin length about 8 to 9% of total length, subangular in shape. First dorsal–fin origin well behind pectoral–fin free rear tips, base slightly closer to pelvic–fin bases than pectorals; first dorsal–fin spine slender, short, and lower than first dorsal–fin apex, with origin about equidistant between upper caudal–fin origin and snout tip or closer to the caudal–fin origin. Second dorsal fin much larger than first and about twice its area, height about 23 to 32% of second dorsal–fin length, apex rounded–angular, posterior margin shallowly concave; second dorsal–fin spine slender and slightly recurved, with its tip diagonally vertical in adults. Dorsal caudal–fin margin about equal to head length. Vertebral counts: total vertebral counts 71 to 83, precaudal vertebral counts 53 to 57, monospondylous vertebral counts 37 to 41. Intestinal valve counts 9 to 11. Size small with adults 26 to 33 cm. Colour: dark brown to blackish–brown on dorsal surface, underside of snout and abdomen black, dorsal surface lighter, ventral surface conspicuously dark; fins light distally, terminal lobe and proximal web of caudal fin dark, but no conspicuous dark bands at tip and through middle of caudal fin; a small conspicuous triangular white pineal blotch present on dorsal surface of head. No conspicuous photolines on body. Suprapelvic photomark present and running behind pelvic fins. Flank photomarks present; flank photomark base very broad and extending anterior and posterior to second dorsal–fin spine; anterior branch of flank photomark moderately long and very broad, longer than posterior branch; posterior branch about 50% as long as anterior branch; posterior branch broad and bluntly pointed, conspicuous, merging ventrally with post–pelvic photomark and not extending behind free rear tip of second dorsal fin. Ventral saddle–shaped precaudal photomark absent from middle of caudal peduncle. Caudal photomarks present; caudal base photomark present, with anterior branch broad, enveloping ventral surface and extending onto lateral surfaces of caudal peduncle; caudal base photomark with a blunt–tipped, elongated posterior branch about 6% of total length. No oval central caudal photomark. Straight upper caudal photomark.

Distribution
Western Atlantic: Virginia and Florida (USA), Uruguay and Argentina; reported off Suriname [2445] and Brazil [19579]. Southeast Atlantic: off the eastern Cape and northern Natal in South Africa [20053]. Some reports of this species from the southeast Atlantic may be misidentifications of the recently described Etmopterus compagnoi (Ref. 36731). Source: www.gbif.org

Human uses
fisheries: of no interest

Biology
Distinct pairing with embrace [17086]. Pups born with 13 cm length. Found on outer continental shelves and upper slopes on or near the bottom at depths of 100 to 1,000 m; also pelagic at depths of 70 to 480 m over water 2,240 m deep off Argentina. Feeds on bony fish, octopus, squid and deep-water shrimp.

Size / Weight / Age
35.0 cm TL (male/unsexed); 33 cm TL (female)

Habitat
benthopelagic; marine; depth range 70 - 1000 m [518]

Dentition
Diagnose: Zähne 27/28, wie üblich glattrandig; im Oberkiefer fünfspitzig, die mittlere Spitze viel länger als die seitlichen; im Unterkiefer einspitzig, die Spitzen stark auswärts gerichtet, die als Schneiden funktionierenden Innenkanten dem Verlauf des Kiefers nahezu parallel. Im Oberkiefer 2 bis 3, im Unterkiefer nur 1 Zahnreihe gleichzeitig in Funktion [2694];

Remarks
shark-references Species-ID=2173;