Etmopterus hillianus

(POEY, 1861)


Caribbean lanternshark
Classification: Elasmobranchii Squaliformes Etmopteridae

Reference of the original description
POEY, F. (1858)
Memorias sobra la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba, acompañadas de sumarios Latinos y extractos en Francés. Tomo 2. La Habana. Vluda de Barcina, Havana, 2: 1–442, pls 1–19

Image of the original description

Etmopterus hillianus (POEY, 1861)

Synonyms / new combinations and misspellings
Etmopterus cf. hillianus, Etmopterus hilianus, Spinax hillianus

Types
Etmopterus hillianus
Holotype: MCZ: 1025-S


Description :


Citation: Etmopterus hillianus (POEY, 1861): In: Database of modern sharks, rays and chimaeras, www.shark-references.com, World Wide Web electronic publication, Version 07/2019

Please send your images of "Etmopterus hillianus" to info@shark-references.com

Etmopterus hillianus (POEY, 1861), © FAO, www.fish-base.org
Common names
spa Galludo enano, spa Tiburón enano, spa Tollo lucero antillano, fra \(T\) Sagre antillais, eng Blackbelly Dogfish, eng Caribbean lantern shark, eng Caribbean lanternshark, eng Carribean lanternshark

Short Description
Field marks and Diagnostic Features after EBERT & STEHMANN, 2013 [17836]: A very small lantern shark with a stout body, short, flattened snout, and a moderately long tail. Dermal denticles covering snout; denticles not arranged in longitudinal rows along trunk. Gill openings very short. Interdorsal space short. Grey to brown dorsally, black ventrally. Flank markings include a long, broad anterior branch extending over the pelvic fins and a short, truncated posterior branch that is less than 50% the length of the anterior branch. Diagnostic Features: Head broad and flattened, not conical; head relatively long, about 21 to 22% of total length and 2.2 to 2.4 times in snout–vent length; head width about 1.3 to 1.4 times preoral snout; head low, height about 9 to 10% of total length. Prespiracular length 1.4 to 1.7 times spiracle–pectoral space. Snout flattened, not bulbous; preoral length short and 9 to 10% of total length. Eyes narrow and elongate–oval; upper eyelid apparently without a pale naked patch. Gill openings somewhat wider than spiracle; width of third gill opening one–third eye length or less. Mouth relatively broad and 1.3 to 1.6 times eye length. Total tooth row counts upper jaw 24 to 26, lower jaw 36 to 38; upper teeth generally with less than 3 pairs of cusplets (2 to 4 pairs), cusps greatly expanded, about 1.5 to 2 times higher than adjacent cusplets; upper teeth of mature males large with a cusp and two pairs of short cusplets. Body moderately firm, cylindrical, and moderately slender. Predorsal spine length about 35 to 37% of total length; interdorsal space slightly longer than prebranchial length and shorter than head length; pectoral–pelvic space about 0.9 to 1.2 times head length in adults; snout tip to rear flank marking base over 100% of snout tip to second dorsal–fin spine origin; dorso–caudal space 10 to 13% of total length, about 1.4 to 1.9 in interdorsal space; pelvic–caudal space 19 to 21% of total length, about 2.1 to 2.2 times first dorsal–fin length, about 1.0 to 1.2 times interdorsal space, longer than prebranchial length, subequal to head length, and subequal to about 1.3 in pectoral–pelvic space. No rows of greatly enlarged denticles on flanks above pectoral fins; denticles largely covering underside of snout; denticles on head, flanks and tail not arranged in regular longitudinal rows; denticles present on second dorsal fin, densely covering it; lateral trunk denticles elongated, wide–spaced, and with slender, hooked conical crowns. Distal margins of fins not fringed with naked ceratotrichia. Pectoral fins moderately small with anterior margin length 8.5 to 11% of total length, rounded–subangular in shape. First dorsal–fin origin just behind or about opposite pectoral–fin free rear tips, base closer to pectoral–fin bases than pelvic fins; first dorsal–fin spine stout, short, and usually lower than first dorsal–fin apex, spine origin nearer snout tip than upper caudal–fin origin. Second dorsal fin much larger than first but less than twice its area, height 39 to 43% of second dorsal–fin length; apex narrowly rounded, and posterior margin broadly to deeply concave; second dorsal–fin spine stout and moderately recurved, with its tip obliquely vertical in adults. Dorsal caudal–fin margin about equal to head length or slightly shorter. Vertebral counts: precaudal vertebral counts 54 to 59. Size small with adults 20 to 28 cm. Colour: grey or dark brown on dorsal surface, underside of snout and abdomen abruptly black, dorsal surface lighter, ventral surface conspicuously dark, with a light lateral band on head, flank and tail base separating the two; precaudal fins light distally, abruptly dark basally; conspicuous dark bands across terminal lobe and through anterior half of caudal fin, with a light band between them; condition of white pineal blotch unknown. Horizontal photolines of dashes and individual photophores present on back and dorsal flanks. Suprapelvic photomark present and running behind pelvic fins. Flank photomarks present; flank photomark base opposite and behind second dorsal–fin spine; anterior branch of flank photomark long and broad, much longer than posterior branch, posterior branch less than 50% of anterior branch; posterior branch of flank photomark truncate, merging ventrally with post–pelvic photomark, and not extending behind free rear tip of second dorsal fin. Ventral saddle– shaped precaudal photomark absent from middle of caudal peduncle. Caudal photomarks present; caudal–base photomark present, with anterior branch broad but not enveloping ventral surface of caudal peduncle and not extending onto its sides; caudal–base photomark with a short posterior branch less than 2% of total length that has a bluntly angular or truncate rear tip. Central caudal photomark absent. Upper caudal photomark present, this long and straight.

Distribution
Western Atlantic: Virginia to southern Florida (USA), Cuba, Bermuda, and St. Kitts [518]; including Brazil (Ref. 53443). Eastern Atlantic [20078].
First record: 2019: off Venezuela [27305] Source: www.gbif.org

Human uses
fisheries: subsistence fisheries

Biology
Ovoviviparous with 4 to 5 young in a litter. Size at birth about 9 cm [518]. Distinct pairing with embrace [17086].

Size / Weight / Age
50.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; [518])

Habitat
bathydemersal; marine; depth range 180 - 717 m (Ref. 51158)

Dentition
Les dents se montrent à découvert en dépassant les lèvres: elles sont sur plusieurs rangs, les inférieures très serrées de manière les faire monvoir toutes, de chaque côté, quand on en meut une seule. Il est difficile de les compter sans dissection; mais il est permis de croire que la formule est 13 + 13/18 + 18. Les dents supérieures ont une longue pointe médiane et deux petites de chaque côté; les inférieures sont carrées, avec une pointe couchée sur le bord supérieur et tournée en arrière : il n'y a pas de dentelures [1921];

Remarks
shark-references Species-ID=2175;