Gymnura japonica

(Temminck & Schlegel, 1850)

Japanese butterflyray
Classification: Elasmobranchii Myliobatiformes Gymnuridae

Reference of the original description
Temminck, C.J. & Schlegel, H. (1850)
Pisces. In de Siebold, P.F. (Ed.), Fauna Japonica, sive descriptio animalium quae in itinere per Japoniam suscepto annis 1823–30 collegit, notis observationibus et adumbrationibus illustravit, 2, 1-323

Image of the original description

Pteroplatea japonica Temminck & Schlegel, 1850, Pl. 141

Synonyms / new combinations and misspellings
Gymnura bimaculata, Pteroplatea bimaculata, Pteroplatea japonica, Pteroplatea jordani

Gymnura japonica
Lectotype: RMNH: D2479 Paralectotype: RMNH: 4252a RMNH: 4252b RMNH: 4252c RMNH: D2478 RMNH: D2480 RMNH: D2481 RMNH: D2484 ZMB: 4650
Gymnura bimaculata
Holotype: BMNH: 1925.4.23.3;
Pteroplatea jordani
XXXX: No types known;

Description :

Citation: Gymnura japonica (Temminck & Schlegel, 1850): In: Database of modern sharks, rays and chimaeras,, World Wide Web electronic publication, Version 03/2024

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Gymnura japonica (Temminck & Schlegel, 1850), © FAO,
Common names
eng Japanese butterfly ray, eng Japanese butterflyray, eng Japnese butterfly ray

Northwest Pacific: southern Japan to the China seas. Possibly in Thailand (Ref. 9918). Reported from India [17688]. Source:

Human uses

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures [733]. Distinct pairing with embrace [17086]. Gives birth to ~3 pups; born between 20-22 cm WD [2539]. In sandy regions in coastal waters [17641]. A carnivore [17641].

Size / Weight / Age
100.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 637))

demersal; marine

shark-references Species-ID=2573;

Parasites (arranged by Jürgen Pollerspöck)
  • Monocotyle undosocirrus Timofeeva, 1984 [17001]

  • Anthobothrium pteroplateae Yamaguti, 1952 [16129]
  • Pterobothrium sp. [24952]

  • Echinocephalus pleroplatae Wang, Zhao & Chen, 1978 [21235]

  • Eudactylina gymnuri Izawa, 2011 [14349]

  • Gnathia trimaculata Coetzee, Smit, Grutter & Davies, 2009 [17188]