Gymnura marmorata

(Cooper, 1864)

California butterfly ray
Classification: Elasmobranchii Myliobatiformes Gymnuridae

Reference of the original description
Cooper, J.G. (1863)
On new genera and species of Californian fishes. N° III. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, (Series 1), 3(7–8), 108–114

Image of the original description

Gymnura marmorata (Cooper, 1864)

Synonyms / new combinations and misspellings
Pteroplatea marmorata

Gymnura marmorata

Description :

Citation: Gymnura marmorata (Cooper, 1864): In: Database of modern sharks, rays and chimaeras,, World Wide Web electronic publication, Version 03/2024

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Gymnura marmorata (Cooper, 1864), © Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas (CICIMAR-IPN)
Common names
spa Raya manta, spa Raya mariposa, spa Raya mariposa californiana, spa Raya mariposa de California, spa Tuyo de California, fra \(T\) Raie-papillon californienne, eng California butterfly ray

Eastern Pacific: California, USA to Peru. Source:

Human uses
fisheries: minor commercial; price category: medium; price reliability: unreliable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this order

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures [733]. Distinct pairing with embrace [17086]. Inhabits warm-temperate to tropical shallow bays and beaches [17050]. Feeds on crustaceans and small fishes (Ref. 37955).

Size / Weight / Age
100.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 9255))

demersal; marine

shark-references Species-ID=2576;

Parasites (arranged by Jürgen Pollerspöck)
  • Trebius latifurcatus Wilson, 1921 [14624]