Heterodontus francisci

(Girard, 1855)

Horn shark
Classification: Elasmobranchii Heterodontiformes Heterodontidae

Reference of the original description
Girard, C.F. (1855)
Characteristics of some cartilaginous fishes of the Pacific coast of North America. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 7, 196–197

Image of the original description
No image in first description.

Synonyms / new combinations and misspellings
Centracion francisci, Cestracion francisci, Cestracion (Heterodontus) francisci, Gyropleurodus francisci, Heterodontus aff. francisci, Heterodontus ex gr. francisci, Heterodontus (Cestracion) francisi

Heterodontus francisci
Holotype: USNM: 933 ?

Description :

Citation: Heterodontus francisci (Girard, 1855): In: Database of modern sharks, rays and chimaeras, www.shark-references.com, World Wide Web electronic publication, Version 04/2024

Please send your images of "Heterodontus francisci" to info@shark-references.com

Heterodontus francisci (Girard, 1855), ERB 1172, female, 38, 8 cm TL, California, USA © Frederik H. Mollen (Elasmobranch Research Belgium)
Common names
deu \(T\) Stierkopfhai, spa Dormilón cornudo, spa Gata, spa Tiburón cabeza de toro, spa Tiburón cornudo, spa Tiburón gato, spa Tiburón puerco, fra \(T\) Requin dormeur cornu, eng Horn shark

Eastern Pacific: central California, USA to the Gulf of California, and probably Ecuador and Peru. Source: www.gbif.org

Human uses
fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: public aquariums; price category: not marketed/unknown; price reliability:

Oviparous [17086]. Distinct pairing with embrace [17086]. Courtship starts when the male chases the female, then when both are ready, they drop to the bottom [531]. During courtship and prior to copulation, the male bites and wraps its body to the female pectoral fin, body, tail, and gills (Ref. 51127, 49562). The male then inserts a single clasper in the female"quot;s cloaca; copulation lasts 30 to 40 min. After one or two weeks later, the eggs are laid in about 11 to 14 intervals for 4 months which were deposited under rocks or in crevices, as was observed in nature. In captivity, the female drops the eggs on the bottom where the contents of the egg cases maybe eaten by these sharks; the eggs are hatched in 7 to 9 months. The young begin to feed one month after hatching [531]. Sluggish, nocturnal, and mostly solitary species. Inhabits rocky bottoms, kelp beds, sandy draws between rocks, on sand flats, deep crevices and small caves and also large underwater caverns. Adults tend to return to the same resting place every day [531]. Feeds on benthic invertebrates, especially sea urchins, crabs and probably abalone, also fishes[17641]

Size / Weight / Age
122 cm TL (male/unsexed; [518]); max. reported age: 12 years (Ref. 72467)

demersal; marine; depth range 2 - 150 m (Ref. 9253), usually 2 - 11 m (Ref. 9253)

shark-references Species-ID=2769;

Parasites (arranged by Jürgen Pollerspöck)
  • Otodistomum veliporum (Creplin, 1837) Stafford, 1904 [23771]

  • Echinocephalus pseudouncinatus Millemann, 1951 [23394] [23771]
  • Phlyctainophora squali Mudry & Dailey, 1969 [15949]

  • Eudactylinodes keratophagus Deets & Benz, 1986 [15946]
  • Trebius heterodonti Deets & Dojiri, 1989 [14624]

  • Nerocila acuminata Schioedte & Meinert, 1883 [17080]