Pteroplatytrygon violacea

(BONAPARTE, 1832)



Classification: Elasmobranchii Myliobatiformes Dasyatidae

Reference of the original description
BONAPARTE, C.L. (1832)
Iconografia della fauna italica per le quattro classi degli animali vertebrati. Tomo III. Pesci. Roma: Fasc. 1, puntata 1–6, 2 pls.

Images of the original description (synonym)
Synonyms / new combinations and misspellings
Dasyatis atratus, Dasyatis guileri, Dasyatis purpurea, Dasyatis purpureus, Dasyatis violacea, Dasyatis violaceus, Dasyatis (Pteroplatytrygon) violacea, Dasybatis purpurea, Dasybatus violaceus, Trygon purpurea, Trygon violacea, Trygon violaceus, Trygon (Himantura) purpureus, Trygon (Trygon) violaceus

Types
Pteroplatytrygon violacea
Syntype: ANSP: 385 (old: Bonaparte 220, ANSP 385-386); NMW: 91239;
Dasyatis atratus
Holotype: SUF: ? Paratype: FAKU: 24671 (not seen in 1997)
Dasyatis guileri
Holotype: QVM: 1978.5.0108 (ex QVM type 360);


Description :


Citation: Pteroplatytrygon violacea (BONAPARTE, 1832): In: Database of modern sharks, rays and chimaeras, www.shark-references.com, World Wide Web electronic publication, Version 04/2019

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Pteroplatytrygon violacea (BONAPARTE, 1832), © NOAA Observer Program
Common names
deu \(T\) Peitschenrochen, deu \(T\) Pelagischer Stechrochen, deu \(T\) Stechrochen, deu \(T\) Violetter Stechrochen, spa Pastinaca, spa Raya látigo obispo, spa Raya látigo pelágica, spa Raya-látigo violeta, fra \(T\) Pastenague, fra \(T\) Pastenague violette, eng Blue stingray, eng Guilers stingray, eng Pelagic stingray, eng Stingray, eng Violet stingray, ita Brucco, ita Bugghiu niru, ita Dragone, ita Ferraccia, ita Ferrassa neigra, ita Ferrazza, ita Hurchje, ita Matana, ita Muchio spinoso, ita Pastinaca, ita Pastinaca violacea, ita Prelato, ita Protene, ita Tomazzo, ita Trigone viola, ita Trigone violetto, ita Trigono, ita Vastunaca, ita Vastunaca spinosa, ita Vurchie, por Ratão, por Uge-violeta

Short Description
A thick, dark stingray with a broadly rounded snout and an angular pectoral disc; tail less than twice body length with a long lower caudal finfold ending far in front of tail tip, but with no upper finfold; disc without thorns; usually 1 extremely long sting on tail; eyes do not protrude [536]. Uniformly violet, purple, or dark blue-green dorsally and ventrally [20091]. No prominent markings [20091].

Distribution
Probably cosmopolitan in tropical and subtropical seas. Eastern Atlantic: southeastern coasts of the Mediterranean and off Sicily. Reported from Cape Verde [20238]. Eastern Pacific: California (USA), Baja California (Mexico), and the Galapagos Islands Reported off Vancouver [20062] and from Chile (Ref. 9068). Western Atlantic [17658]. There are 4 records from southern Africa [20053]. Source: www.gbif.org

Human uses
fisheries:

Biology
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures [733]. Distinct pairing with embrace [17086]. With 2 [2539] to 9 young born at 15-25 cm WD [578]; after a gestation period of 4 months [2539]. Found on the continental shelf (Ref. 75154). Feeds on fish, squids and jellyfish [536].

Size / Weight / Age
160 cm TL (male/unsexed; [536])

Habitat
pelagic-oceanic; marine; depth range 1 - 381 m [17640], usually 1 - 100 m (Ref. 55209)

Remarks
shark-references Species-ID=5319;

Parasites (arranged by Jürgen Pollerspöck)
Monogenea
  • Neoentobdella diadema (MONTICELLI, 1902) KEARN & WHITTINGTON, 2005 [17150]

Cestoda
Trematoda
  • Botulus microporus (MONTICELLI, 1889) [17647]