Raja clavata

LINNAEUS, 1758


Thornback ray
Classification: Elasmobranchii Rajiformes Rajidae

Reference of the original description
LINNÉ, C. (1758)
Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, regnum animale, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus differentiis synonymis, locis. Ed. X., 1: 824 p. Stockholm (L. SALVIUS).

Image of the original description
No image in first description.

Images of the original description (synonym)
Synonyms / new combinations and misspellings
Cephaleutherus maculatus, Dasybatis clavata, Malacoraja clavata, Raia aspera, Raia clavata, Raia clavata STEPHAN 1779, Raia rhizacanthus, Raia rubus, Raja aff. clavata, Raja aspera, Raja bonae-speiensis, Raja bonaespeiensis, Raja capensis*, Raja cf. clavata, Raja leiobatos, Raja pontica, Raja rhizacanthus, Raja rubus, Raja (Raja) capensis, Raja (Raja) cf. clavata, Raja (Raja) clavata

Types
Raja clavata
Syntype: NRM: 9072;
Raia aspera
Syntype: MNHN: B-0843;
Raia rhizacanthus
Holotype: BMNH: 1905.6.8.13
Raia rubus
Syntype: ZMB: 4591 ZMB: 33075
Raja bonae-speiensis
Syntype: MNHN: 1333 RMNH: D2492 RMNH: D2493 RMNH: D2507
Raja leiobatos
Syntype: BMNH: 1853.11.12.201 (Gronovius coll.)


Description :


Citation: Raja clavata LINNAEUS, 1758: In: Database of modern sharks, rays and chimaeras, www.shark-references.com, World Wide Web electronic publication, Version 08/2020

Please send your images of "Raja clavata" to info@shark-references.com

Raja clavata LINNAEUS, 1758, Museum Naturalis, Leiden -RMHN- © Dr. Voigt, Konstanz
Common names
deu \(T\) Dornrochen, deu \(T\) Keulen-Stachel, deu \(T\) Keulenrochen, deu \(T\) Keulenstachel, deu \(T\) Nagelrochen, deu \(T\) Rochen, deu \(T\) Stachelrochen, deu \(T\) Steinrochen, spa Arraizabala, spa Bastina rajada, spa Bramante, spa Clavel, spa Gastaka, spa Pez de mahoma, spa Raia de clavos, spa Rajada, spa Rajada vera, spa Raya común, spa Raya crabuda, spa Raya de clavos, spa Raya punjosa, spa Romaguera, fra \(T\) Clavelade, fra \(T\) Raie bouclée, fra \(T\) Raie bouclée clovée, fra \(T\) Raiton, fra \(T\) Réagris, fra \(T\) Zerra bouké, eng Maiden ray, eng Rocker, eng Roker, eng Skate, eng Thornback, eng Thornback maid ray, eng Thornback ray, eng Thornback rough ray, eng Thornback skate, eng Thorny, ita Arzilla di scoglio, ita Arzilla pietrosa, ita Baracola, ita Baracoleta, ita Perdosa, ita Picara pitrusa, ita Picareia, ita Pichira pitrusa, ita Raggia, ita Ragia pitrusa, ita Raia petrosa, ita Raja petrusa, ita Raja pitrusa, ita Rasa, ita Rasa spinosa, ita Rasca petrusa, ita Rascia petroèse, ita Raza, ita Raza pietrosa, ita Razza, ita Razza chiodata, ita Razza di scoglio, ita Razza spinusa, ita Scardano, ita Scritta perdosa, por Arraia, por Lenga, por Raia, por Raia lenga, por Raia-brocheada, por Raia-lenga, por Raia-pinta

Short Description
Upper surfaces wholly prickly, underside wholly prickly in large females, only snout and margins of disc in young and large males; orbital thorns separate, 30-50 in median row from nape to first dorsal fin; additional large "quot;buckler"quot; thorns with swollen bases scattered on upper surface of disc in adults [7182]. Sub rhomboid disc, disc-width 1,25 to 1,36 times in its length, its length 1,70 to 1,83 times in total length; short rostrum, rounded at his extremity; pectoral fins with clear angles on lateral side; triangular pelvic fins (Ref. 39246). Upper surface very variable, all shades of brown, variegated with dark and light spots and blotches, underside white [7182].

Distribution
Eastern Atlantic: Iceland, Norway, North Sea and the western Baltic southward to Morocco and Namibia, including the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. Although reported from southern Africa, its status in the area is uncertain [536]. Source: www.gbif.org

Human uses
fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums

Biology
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk [733]. About 150 egg-cases are laid in a year, in spring (northwestern Europe) or winter and spring (Mediterranean) [7182]. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother [17086]. Inhabit shelf and upper slope waters from the coastal line to about 300 m. Depth range from 20-300 m [7180], and from 300-577 m in the eastern Ionian Sea [17735]. Found on sand and sand-rock bottoms [17687]. Feed on all kinds of bottom animals, preferably crustaceans [7182]. Diet and feeding strategy from the eastern-central Adriatic Sea (data from 428 specimens, 140 mm -751 mm TL): stomachs contents belong to eight major groups: Cephalopoda, Polychaeta, Stomatopoda, Decapoda (Natantia and Reptantia), Mysidacea, Isopoda, Amphipoda and Teleostei. Decapods were the most important prey (index of relative important, %IRI,= 72•8) followed by teleosts (%IRI = 20•4). Small-sized individuals (<25 cm LT) fed primarily on small crustaceans (mysids and amphipods), whereas large-sized specimens consumed larger prey, such as decapods, cephalopods and teleosts [16596].

Size / Weight / Age
105 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 6014)); 120 cm TL (female); max. published weight: 18.0 kg [20241]; max. reported age: 12 years (Ref. 72473)

Habitat
demersal; marine; depth range 20 - 577 m [17735]

Remarks
shark-references Species-ID=5577;

Parasites (arranged by Jürgen Pollerspöck)
Ciliophora
  • Trichodina gobii RAABE, 1959 [22626]

Myxosporea
  • Ceratomyxa agilis THÉLOHAN, 1892 [22626]
  • Chloromyxum leydigi MINGAZZINI, 1890 [22626]
  • Chloromyxum partistriatus KOVALJOVA, DONETZ & KOLESNIKOVA, 1989 [22626] [28406]
  • Chloromyxum psetti KOVALJOVA, DONETZ & KOLESNIKOVA, 1989 [22626]

Monogenea
Cestoda
Trematoda
  • Otodistomum veliporum (CREPLIN, 1837) STAFFORD, 1904 [22616]
  • Stichocotyle nephropis CUNNINGHAM, 1887 [25979]

Nematoda
  • Ascaris succisa RUDOLPHI, 1819 [17029]
  • Hysterothylacium aduncum (RUDOLPHI, 1802) [22626]
  • Metanisakis baylisi (GIBSON, 1973) [17029]
  • Metanisakis tricupola (GIBSON, 1973) [22626]
  • Proleptus obtusus DUJARDIN, 1845 [9347]
  • Proleptus robustus (VAN BENEDEN, 1871) [19885] [22626]

Copepoda
Isopoda
Hirudinea