Raja miraletus

LINNAEUS, 1758


Brown ray
Classification: Elasmobranchii Rajiformes Rajidae

Reference of the original description
LINNÉ, C. (1758)
Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, regnum animale, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus differentiis synonymis, locis. Ed. X., 1: 824 p. Stockholm (L. SALVIUS).

Image of the original description
No image in first description.

Synonyms / new combinations and misspellings
Raia miraletus, Raia quadrimaculata, Raja cf. miraletus, Raja quadrimaculata, Raja (Raja) miraletus

Types
Raja miraletus



Description :


Citation: Raja miraletus LINNAEUS, 1758: In: Database of modern sharks, rays and chimaeras, www.shark-references.com, World Wide Web electronic publication, Version 12/2018

Please send your images of "Raja miraletus" to info@shark-references.com

Raja miraletus LINNAEUS, 1758, off port of Valencia © L'Elasmogrup, University of Valencia)
Common names
deu \(T\) Braunrochen, deu \(T\) Pfauenaugen-Rochen, deu \(T\) Rochen, deu \(T\) Spiegelrochen, deu \(T\) Vieraugen-Rochen, deu \(T\) Vieräagiger Spiegelrochen, deu \(T\) Vieräugiger Spiegelrochen, deu \(T\) Zweifleckiger Rochen, spa Bachada escrita, spa Clavellada, spa Excrita, spa Grisol, spa Racho de escrita, spa Raja de espejos, spa Rajada de San Pere, spa Rajada limpia, spa Ratjada, spa Raya de espejos, spa Raya espejuelo, spa Raya limpia, spa Raya vera, spa Retjada, fra \(T\) Ikara, fra \(T\) Pélouza, fra \(T\) Raie, fra \(T\) Raie florifère, fra \(T\) Raie miraillée, fra \(T\) Raie miroir, fra \(T\) Raie zéro, fra \(T\) Zerra, eng Brown ray, eng Brown skate, eng Homelyn cuckoo ray, eng Homelyn mirror ray, eng Homelyn sandy ray, eng Skate, eng Twineye ray, eng Twineye skate, ita Arzilla, ita Cchjaline, ita Cchjalune, ita Chiamida, ita Occhialina, ita Picara liscia, ita Picara quattrocchi, ita Picara quattuocchi, ita Pichira fimminedda, ita Pichira liscia, ita Quatrochi, ita Quatroci, ita Quattrocchi, ita Quattrucchi, ita Quattuecchi, ita Raja liscia, ita Raja occhialuta, ita Raja quattrocchi, ita Rasa quatroci, ita Rasa sfeuggoena, ita Rascia liscia, ita Razza argentina, ita Razza occhiuta, ita Razza quattrocchi, ita Razza stellina, ita Scritta a quattrogus, ita Tappacunnu, por Peixe-areia, por Raia-azul, por Raia-de-dos-olhos, por Raia-de-espelhos, por Raia-de-quatro-olhos

Short Description
Snout short and bluntly pointed; disc angular [536]. Upper surface prickly only in young, nearly smooth in adults, underside smooth [7182]. Upper surface ochre to reddish-brown with scattered dark spots, underside white [7182]; two bright blue eyespots centered on the pectoral bases [536]; may have a small dark spot on tip of snout [20085]. Diet: eastern central Adriatic Sea (data base: of 418 stomachs examined, total length (TL) of 13.5 - 40.0 cm, 38 were empty (9.0%): The prey items identified in the stomachs belong to six major groups: Decapoda (Natantia and Reptantia), Mysidacea, Teleostei, Cephalopoda, Amphipoda and Polychaeta. Decapods were the most important prey (%IRI 88.2), whereas other prey groups were only occasionally ingested. [17732] Sardinian waters (centralwestern Mediterranean) (data base: 78 specimens) In R. miraletus, Crustacea represented the main prey in all size groups (% IRI599.5, 99.6, and 88, respectively). Amphipoda Gammaridea were the predominant prey for small individuals, and were replaced in medium and large specimens by decapods. Low levels of interspecific competition were generally found.[17740]

Distribution
Eastern Atlantic: northern Portugal and throughout the Mediterranean to Madeira and South Africa. Reported from the Canary Islands [7182] but occurrence needs verification [17687]. Also in southwestern part of the Indian Ocean. Source: www.gbif.org

Human uses
fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes

Biology
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk [733]. With egg-cases laid from spring to summer [7182]. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother [17086]. Found over soft bottoms of the shelf and the uppermost slope [536]. Depth range from 17-300 m, and up to depth of 462 m in the eastern Ionian Sea [17735]. Feeds on fish, squids, benthic organisms, all kinds of benthic animals and fish offal [536].

Size / Weight / Age
63.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; [5193]); 59.7 cm TL (female)

Habitat
demersal; brackish; marine; depth range 17 - 462 m [17735], usually 50 - 150 m [17736]

Remarks
shark-references Species-ID=5707;

Parasites (arranged by Jürgen Pollerspöck)
Conoidasida
Cestoda
  • Echinobothrium affine DIESING, 1863 [16430]
  • Echinobothrium mercedesae CAIRA, RODRIGUEZ & PICKERING, 2013 [19843]
  • Echinobothrium sp. [19536]
  • Echinobothrium yiae CAIRA, RODRIGUEZ & PICKERING, 2013 [19843]
  • Grillotia erinaceus (VAN BENEDEN, 1858) [16112] [7411]
  • Parachristianella duadecacantha PALM, 2004 [16112]

Isopoda
  • Anilocra frontalis H. MILNE EDWARDS, 1830 [25069]
  • Ceratothoa capri (TRILLES, 1964) [25069]
  • Ceratothoa collaris (SCHIOEDTE & MEINERT, 1883) [23898] [19912]

Hirudinea
  • Pontobdella moorei OKA, 1910 [24517]
  • Pontobdella muricata (LINNAEUS, 1758) [26062]