Sphyrna mokarran

(Rüppell, 1837)

Great hammerhead
Classification: Elasmobranchii Carcharhiniformes Sphyrnidae

Reference of the original description
Rüppell, W.P.E.S.E. (1837)
Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig: Fische des rothen Meeres. Frankfurt am Main, 1837: pp. 53–80, pls. 15–21

Image of the original description

Sphyrna mokarran (Rüppell, 1837), image of the first description in Rüppell, plate 17, fig. 3

Synonyms / new combinations and misspellings
Cestracion mokarran, Cestracion (Zygaena) mokarran, Sphyrna aff. mokarran, Sphyrna cf. mokarran, Sphyrna ligo, Sphyrna mokorran, Sphyrna (Sphyrna) mokarran, Sphyrnias mokarran, Zygaena dissimilis, Zygaena mokarran

Sphyrna mokarran
Lectotype: SMF: 3590;
Sphyrna ligo
Holotype: BMNH: 1890.9.23.231 (ex Imperial Inst.);
Zygaena dissimilis
XXXX: No types known;

Description :

Citation: Sphyrna mokarran (Rüppell, 1837): In: Database of modern sharks, rays and chimaeras, www.shark-references.com, World Wide Web electronic publication, Version 12/2023

Please send your images of "Sphyrna mokarran" to info@shark-references.com

Sphyrna mokarran (Rüppell, 1837), © FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Ebert, D.A. 2014. On Board Guide for the Identification of Pelagic Sharks and Rays of the Western Indian Ocean. Reproduced with permission, illustration by Marc Dando , Wildlife Illustrator
Common names
deu \(T\) Großer Hammerhai, spa Cachona, spa Cachona grande, spa Cornuda de ley, spa Cornuda gigante, spa Cornudo, spa Cornúa, spa Cornúa gigante, spa Gran tiburón martillo, spa Martillo, spa Pez martillo, spa Pez martillo gigante, spa Tiburón martillo, spa Tiburón martillo gigante, spa Tollo cruz, fra \(T\) Grand requin marteau, fra \(T\) Grand requin-marteau, fra \(T\) Requin marteau, fra \(T\) Requin-marteau, eng Great hammerhead, eng Great hammerhead shark, eng Hoe-head shark, eng Squat-headed hammerhead shark, ita Grande squalo martello, ita Squalo martello maggiore, por Cambeva, por Cação-martelo, por Cação-panã, por Cornuda-gigante, por Martelo, por Panã, por Peixe-martelo, por Tubarão martelo gigante, por Tubarão-martelo-gigante

Short Description
A very large hammerhead also with a notch at the center of the head [536]. Front margin of head gently curved in juveniles, becoming nearly straight in adults, with slight median notch [17659]. 1st dorsal fin very high and curved; 2nd dorsal and pelvic fins high and with deeply concave rear margins. Light grey or grey-brown above, white below; fins without conspicuous markings [536].

Circumglobal in coastal warm temperate and tropical seas [20050]. Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA to Uruguay, including the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean. Eastern Atlantic: Mediterranean and Morocco to Senegal. Indo-Pacific: throughout the Indian Ocean; Ryukyu Islands to New Caledonia and French Polynesia. Eastern Pacific: southern Baja California, Mexico to Peru. Highly migratory species, Annex I of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea [20076].
First record: 2019: New Ireland Province, Papua New Guinea, western Pacific Ocean [27359]
Bangladesh (see image of G. M. Masum Billah) Source: www.gbif.org

Human uses
fisheries: commercial

Viviparous with a yolk sac placenta and 13-42 young in a litter [517]; 6-42 pups after gestation period of ~11 months [2539]. Size at birth between 50 to 70 cm TL [2539] [20050]. Occurs on the continental shelf (Ref. 75154). Inhabits coral reefs (Ref. 58534).

Size / Weight / Age
610 cm TL (male/unsexed; [517]); max. published weight: 449.5 kg (Ref. 40637)

pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous [17660]; brackish; marine; depth range 1 - 300 m (Ref. 37816)

shark-references Species-ID=6581; CITES: (see: Protected Species for more details) Convention on International Trade in Endangered Speciesof Wild Fauna and Flora annex: II; Council Regulation 2017/160 annex: B

Parasites (arranged by Jürgen Pollerspöck)
  • Erpocotyle septistoma Maillard & Paperna, 1978 [7850]

  • Bombycirhynchus sphyraeniaicum (Pintner, 1930) [17839] [16112]
  • Cathetocephalus australis Schmidt & Beveridge, 1990 [16197]
  • Dasyrhynchus magnus (Bilqees & Khurshid, 1985) [5977] [16112]
  • Heteronybelinia heteromorphi Palm, 1999 [16366] [16112] [27172]
  • Otobothrium mugilis Hiscock, 1954 [15747] [17826]
  • Otobothrium propecysticum Dollfus, 1969 [24083] [15747]
  • Phoreiobothrium manirei Caira, Healy & Swanson, 1996 [7559]
  • Phoreiobothrium sp. [16908] [23771]
  • Pseudogilquinia microbothria Maccallum, 1917 [15747]
  • Scyphophyllidium sinclairtaylori (Cutmore, Bennett, Miller & Cribb, 2017) [25840]
  • Symbothriorhynchus tigaminacantha Palm, 2004 [17827]

  • Euterranova pectinolabiata (Shamsi, Barton & Zhu, 2019) [27482]
  • Huffmanela selachii Al-Sabi, Ibrahim,Al-Hizab, Al-Jabr, Al-Shubaythi & Huffman, 2022 [31270]
  • Parascarophis sphyrnae Campana-Rouget, 1955 [27694]
  • Piscicapillaria bursata Moravec & Barton, 2019 [27694]

  • Corynosoma cetaceum Johnston & Best, 1942 [27561]
  • Serrasentis sagittifer (Linton, 1889) [27561]

  • Pontobdella macrothela (Schimarda, 1861) [25688]