Tetronarce nobiliana

(Bonaparte, 1835)

Atlantic torpedo
Classification: Elasmobranchii Torpediniformes Torpedinidae

Reference of the original description
Bonaparte, C.L. (1835)
Iconografia della fauna italica per le quattro classi degli animali vertebrati. Tomo III. Pesci. Roma: Fasc. 12–14, puntata 59–79, 12 pls.

Images of the original description (synonym)
Synonyms / new combinations and misspellings
Gymnotorpedo hebetans, Gymnotorpedo nobiliana, Gymnotorpedo occidentalis, Narcacion fairchildi, Narcacion fusca, Narcacion nobilianus, Narcacion nobilianus, Narcobatus fairchildi, Narcobatus nobiliana, Narcobatus nobilianus, Notastrape fairchildi, Notastrape macneilli, Tetronarce cf. nobiliana, Tetronarce fairchildi, Tetronarce macneilli, Torpedo cf. nobiliana, Torpedo emarginata, Torpedo fairchildi, Torpedo fusca, Torpedo hebetans, Torpedo macneilli, Torpedo nigra, Torpedo nobiliana, Torpedo nobilianus, Torpedo nobililana, Torpedo walshii, Torpedo (Tetronarce) fairchildi, Torpedo (Tetronarce) macneilli, Torpedo (Tetronarce) nobiliana, Torpedo (Tetronarke) nobiliana, Torpedo (Torpedo) nobiliana

Tetronarce nobiliana

Torpedo fusca
Holotype: BMNH: 1886.11.18.119
Torpedo hebetans
Syntype: BMNH: 1852.8.30.22
Torpedo macneilli
Holotype: AMS: I.13838;
Torpedo nigra
Holotype: MNHN: 1309;
Torpedo nobiliana
Syntype: ANSP: 461 (old: Bonaparte 234; ANSP 461-470); ANSP: 16948 (old: Bonaparte 15); ANSP: 16948 ANSP: 426 (old: Bonaparte 234; ANSP 426-430); NMW: 76279;
Torpedo walshii
XXXX: No types known;

Description :

Citation: Tetronarce nobiliana (Bonaparte, 1835): In: Database of modern sharks, rays and chimaeras, www.shark-references.com, World Wide Web electronic publication, Version 04/2024

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Tetronarce nobiliana (Bonaparte, 1835) (ERB 0844), male, 48, 5 cm DW, 67, 0 cm TL, North Sea (The Netherlands) © Frederik H. Mollen (Elasmobranch Research Belgium)
Common names
deu \(T\) Dunkler Zitterrochen, deu \(T\) Schwarzer Zitterrochen, deu \(T\) Zitterrochen, spa Esturpillo, spa Temblador de mar, spa Temblaera, spa Torpedo de lo alto, spa Torpedo del Atlántico, spa Tremblador negro, spa Tremolina negra, spa Trimielga negra, spa Vaca temblaera, fra \(T\) Torpille, fra \(T\) Torpille noire, fra \(T\) Torpille noire stupéfiante, eng Atlantic New British torpedo, eng Atlantic electric ray, eng Atlantic torpedo, eng Black torpedo, eng Crampfish, eng Dark electric ray, eng Electric ray, eng Electricfish, eng Great torpedo, eng Numbfish, eng Torpedo, ita Sgranfo, ita Torpedine nera, ita Tremolo grando, ita Tremula "mpiriale, ita Tremula nira, por Arrraia, por Raia, por Torpedo, por Tremelga, por Tremelga-negra

Short Description
Large ray with a huge, paddle-shaped caudal fin and with no papillae around spiracles. Shiny black or dark grey above, underside white [536]. Broad subcircular disc, short snout anterior to the eyes. Smooth skin, short thick tail [199]. Dark chocolate to purplish brown above, without spots, white below, but with edges of disc and pelvic fins of same hue as upper surface, tail with irregular dark margins [199].

Eastern Atlantic: Scotland (rare in North Sea) to Morocco, whole of Mediterranean, but not Black Sea; Cap Blanc in Mauritania to Gulf of Guinea, São Tomé Island; Walvis Bay, Namibia to Mossel Bay, South Africa [536]. Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, Canada south to Brazil [20078]. Source: www.gbif.org

Human uses
fisheries: of no interest

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures [733]. With up to 60 in a litter. Gestation period one year [1658]. Size at birth about 23 cm [1658]. Juveniles benthic over soft bottoms or near coral reefs [1658] from 10-150 m; adults are semi-pelagic to pelagic, swimming in the water column and have been reported to migrate over long distances [7182]. Feeds mainly on pelagic and benthic bony fishes, small sharks [536] and benthic crustaceans (Ref. 58748).

Size / Weight / Age
180 cm TL (male/unsexed; [7182]); max. published weight: 90.0 kg [17658]

benthopelagic; oceanodromous; marine; depth range 2 - 800 m (Ref. 35509), usually 10 - 150 m [20241]

shark-references Species-ID=10087;

Parasites (arranged by Jürgen Pollerspöck)
  • Otodistomum veliporum (Creplin, 1837) Stafford, 1904 [16602]

  • Echthrogaleus torpedinis Wilson, 1907 [15303] [27172]
  • Eudactylina acuta Van Beneden, 1853 [16609]
  • Pandarus floridanus Cressey, 1967 [16606]