Torpedo torpedo

(Linnaeus, 1758)

Common torpedo
Classification: Elasmobranchii Torpediniformes Torpedinidae

Reference of the original description
Linné, C. (1758)
Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, regnum animale, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus differentiis synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Stockholm, Laurentii Salvii, 824pp.

Image of the original description
No image in first description.

Synonyms / new combinations and misspellings
Fimbriotorpedo ocellata, Narcacion pantherinus, Narcacion torpedo, Narcobatus narke, Narcobatus torpedo, Raia torpedo, Raia torpedo., Raja narce, Raja torpedo, Torpedo narce, Torpedo narke, Torpedo ocellata, Torpedo oculata, Torpedo unimaculata, Torpedo (Torpedo) torpedo

Torpedo torpedo
XXXX: No types known;
Torpedo narke
XXXX: No types known;
Torpedo ocellata
XXXX: No types known;
Torpedo oculata
XXXX: No types known;

Description :

Citation: Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus, 1758): In: Database of modern sharks, rays and chimaeras,, World Wide Web electronic publication, Version 04/2024

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Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus, 1758), © Roberto Pillon
Common names
deu \(T\) Augenfleck-Zitterrochen, deu \(T\) Augenfleckzitterrochen, deu \(T\) Gefleckter Zitterrochen, deu \(T\) Zitterrochen, spa Baca, spa Formigón, spa Ortiga, spa Tembla, spa Tembladeras, spa Temblador, spa Temblera, spa Temblón, spa Trembladora, spa Tremielga, spa Tremielga de ojos, spa Tremolina, spa Tremolina común, spa Tremuló, spa Trimielga, spa Vaca, spa Vaca trembladora, fra \(T\) Dourmillouse, fra \(T\) Galina, fra \(T\) Torpille ocellée, fra \(T\) Torpille tachetée, fra \(T\) Torpille à taches, fra \(T\) Tremoulina, fra \(T\) Troupiale à taches ocellée, eng Common torpedo, eng Cramp ray, eng Crampfish, eng Eyed electric ray, eng Ocellate torpedo, eng Ocellated torpedo, ita Arcisa, ita Crampo, ita Strompigliola, ita Torpedine, ita Torpedine occhiuta, ita Torpedine ocellata, ita Tremmula liscia, ita Tremmula ucchiata, ita Tremoixe, ita Tremoja, ita Tremola, ita Tremolo, ita Tremolo ocià, ita Tremula, ita Tremula ucchiuta, ita Tremulina, ita Triemele, ita Trimmola, ita Trippina, ita Trompigliola, por Tremedeira, por Tremelga, por Tremelga de olhos, por Tremelga-de-olhos, por Trememão, por Tremão

Short Description
Diet: 2013: Lagoon of Bizerte (northeastern Tunisia, central Mediterranean, data source: 565 stomach contents examined between May 2010 and April 2011, 425 were empty): Only fourteen different taxa were recorded: 7 were osteichthyans, while crustaceans, annelids, cephalopods, and gasteropods were only represented each one by a single taxon. The dominant preys were osteichthyans, with %IRI = 41.74, among them gobiids were mainly found, as a consequence of feeding strategies observed in common torpedos [19437]

Eastern Atlantic: southern Bay of Biscay and throughout the Mediterranean to Angola. Most common in tropical waters. Source:

Human uses
fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: public aquariums

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures [733]. Found on soft bottoms, usually inshore but occasionally deeper. Feeds on small fishes and also benthic invertebrates.

Size / Weight / Age
60.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; [5040]); 41 cm TL (female)

demersal; marine; depth range 2 - 400 m (Ref. 4430), usually ? - 70 m [17657]

shark-references Species-ID=7211;

Parasites (arranged by Jürgen Pollerspöck)
  • Amphibdella paronaperugiae Llewellyn, 1960 [31118]
  • Amphibdelloides benhassinae Tazerouti, Neifar & Euzet, 2006 [21239] [31118]

  • Pseudocharopinus malleus (Rudolphi in Von Nordmann, 1832) [16609] [21212]