Rhinoptera bonasus

(MITCHILL, 1815)


Cownose ray
Classification: Elasmobranchii Myliobatiformes Rhinopteridae

Reference of the original description
MITCHILL, S.L. (1815)
The fishes of New York described and arranged. Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New York, 1: 355–492

Image of the original description
No image in first description.

Synonyms / new combinations and misspellings
Raja bonasus, Raja quadriloba, Rhinoptera aff. bonasus, Rhinoptera affinis, Rhinoptera cf. bonasus, Rhinoptera lalandii, Rhinoptera quadriloba

Types
Rhinoptera bonasus

Rhinoptera affinis
Syntype: BMNH: ? 1867.11.28.211 Java RMNH: 7462
Rhinoptera lalandii
Syntype: MNHN: 0000-3475; MNHN: 2606


Description :


Citation: Rhinoptera bonasus (MITCHILL, 1815): In: Database of modern sharks, rays and chimaeras, www.shark-references.com, World Wide Web electronic publication, Version 11/2018

Please send your images of "Rhinoptera bonasus" to info@shark-references.com

Rhinoptera bonasus (MITCHILL, 1815), © Andy Murch Elasmodiver
Common names
spa Cara de vaca, spa Chucho, spa Chucho marrón, spa Chucho mono, spa Gavilan mancha, spa Gavilan manchado, spa Gavilán cubanito, spa Mancha, spa Raya gavilán, fra \(T\) Mourine américaine, eng Cow-nosed ray, eng Cowfish, eng Cownose Ray, eng Cownose rays, eng Manta, eng Skeete, por Arraia, por Raia, por Raia-focinho-de-vaca, por Raia-sapo, por Raia-ticonha, por Ticonha

Short Description
Deep grove around front of head below eyes; forehead above groove indented, snout below groove is distinctly bilobed [17659]. Disk brown to olive above, with no spots or marks, wings long and pointed [17658]. Lower surface white or yellowish white [199].

Distribution
Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania, Senegal and Guinea. Western Atlantic: southern New England to northern Florida (USA) and throughout the Gulf of Mexico, migrating to Trinidad, Venezuela, Brazil and Uruguay [17658]. Source: www.gbif.org

Human uses
fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: public aquariums; price category: medium; price reliability: very questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this family

Biology
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures [733]. An oceanic species sometimes found near the coast (Ref. 5217). Forms segregated schools [1658]. Jumps occasionally, landing with a loud smack, probably as a territorial display. Migrates south in large schools that disappear off northern Florida, USA and are not reported from Caribbean Is.; tagged fish have been recovered in northern South America [17658]. Population in the Gulf of Mexico migrates clockwise; schools of up to 10,000 rays leave west coast of Florida for Yucatan, Mexico in the fall [17658]. Foraging schools of rays invade tidal flats during the flood tide. Stirring motions of the pectoral fins combined with suction from the expansive orobranchial chamber are probably used to excavate deep burrowing bivalves (Ref. 59106). Adult rays feed on deep burrowing mollusks and juveniles feed on shallow or non-burrowing bivalves (Ref. 59106). The soft shell, Mya arenaria, contributed the greatest frequency of occurrence (Ref. 59106). Exposed pectoral fin tips and water boils on a calm surface was characterized the shallow-water feeding activity of cownose rays (Ref. 59106).

Size / Weight / Age
213 cm WD (male/unsexed; (Ref. 4441))

Habitat
benthopelagic; oceanodromous [17660]; brackish; marine; depth range 0 - 22 m [20083]

Remarks
2584

Parasites (arranged by Jürgen Pollerspöck)
Conoidasida
Monogenea
Cestoda
Copepoda
  • Eudactylina squamosa BERE, 1936 [17867]
  • Metacaligus rufus (WILSON, 1908) [25906]