Rhinoptera steindachneri

EVERMANN & JENKINS, 1891


Pacific cownose ray
Classification: Elasmobranchii Myliobatiformes Rhinopteridae

Reference of the original description
EVERMANN, B.W. & JENKINS, O.P. (1891)
Report upon a collection of fishes made at Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico, with descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 14 (846): 121–164

Image of the original description

Rhinoptera steindachneri EVERMANN & JENKINS,1891

Synonyms / new combinations and misspellings
Rhinoptera cf. steindachneri

Types
Rhinoptera steindachneri
Holotype: USNM: 43235


Description :


Citation: Rhinoptera steindachneri EVERMANN & JENKINS, 1891: In: Database of modern sharks, rays and chimaeras, www.shark-references.com, World Wide Web electronic publication, Version 09/2020

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Rhinoptera steindachneri EVERMANN & JENKINS, 1891, Ecuador © Franklin Soli, Ecuador
Common names
spa Gavilan negro, spa Gavilán dorado, spa Raya, spa Raya dorada, spa Raya hocico de vaca, fra \(T\) Mourine du Pacifique, fra \(T\) Raya murciélago, eng Cow-nosed ray, eng Golden cownose ray, eng Hawkray, eng Pacific cow-nose ray, eng Pacific cownose ray

Short Description
Large cownose ray with a lozenge shaped disc, rather short whip-like tail, narrow mouth and internasal space, dorsal-fin origin well behind pectoral-fin insertions, and central 3 rows of teeth in each jaw relatively broad. Disc broad and long; anterior margin barely notched behind eye. Head narrow, snout weakly notched; cephalic lobes broad, posterior edge usually reaching beyond mouth, partly depressible into shallow groove. Spiracles much larger than eye, originating at pectoral-fin origins. Mouth narrow, Pectoral-fin tips bluntly angular; dorsal fin well developed, origin near or slightly behind pelvic-fin insertions, posterior margin weakly concave; undamaged caudal sting well developed, slightly longer than dorsal-fin base, its origin usually under dorsal-fin free rear tip; ventral skin fold on anterior tail not obvious. [24887]

Distribution
Eastern Central Pacific, northern Mexico to Peru, including Galapagos Islands [24887] Source: www.gbif.org

Human uses
fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: public aquariums

Biology
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures [733]. Found over soft bottoms, near rocky or coral reefs; also near reef dropoffs [1658]. Occasionally near the surface and may jump out of the water. Often in schools, sometimes associated with Aetobatus narinari, the spotted eagle ray [1658]. Feeds on benthic crustaceans and molluscs.
Diet: 2019: n=310 specimens (146 females and 164 males): 295 specimens with empty stomach, 9 contained stomach content remains (total of 6813 prey were counted in nine cownose rays, with a total weight of 65.85 g. Six prey items belonging to four taxonomic classes (Annelida, Crustacea, Mollusca and Teleostei) were identified; crustaceans contributed the most by number (6808 individuals, Mysidium spp.) and by weight (64.9 g) to diet). [27389]

Size / Weight / Age
DW (max): 104 cm, DW (mature): males/females: +70 cm, DW (birth): 39-43 cm [24887]

Habitat
reef-associated; oceanodromous [17660]; marine; depth range 0 - 30 m (Ref. 5227)

Dentition
Teeth plate-like, in 7- 9 rows in each jaw; in middle row of upper jaw --3-4 times wider than long, about twice wider than those adjacent; 2 inner rows on each side narrow. [24887]

Remarks
shark-references Species-ID=6079;

Parasites (arranged by Jürgen Pollerspöck)
Monogenea
Cestoda
Nematoda
Copepoda
  • Alebion sp. [26291]
  • Caligus curtus MÜLLER, 1785 [26291]
  • Ergasilus myctarothes WILSON, 1913 [26291]
  • Eudactylina squamosa BERE, 1936 [17867]
  • Eudactylinodes keratophagus DEETS & BENZ, 1986 [26291]
  • Taeniacanthodes dojirii BRASWELL, BENZ & DEETS, 2002 [26291]

Isopoda
Hirudinea
  • Branchellion lobata MOORE, 1952 [26291]