NEWSLETTER 12/2014 06.12.2014
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Pollerspöck, J. 2014, Bibliography database of living/fossil sharks, rays and chimaeras (Chondrichtyes: Elasmobranchii, Holocephali), www.shark-references.com, World Wide Web electronic publication, Version 2014
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Thomas Reinecke, Markus Balsberger, Bernhard Beaury & Jürgen Pollerspöck, 2014, The elasmobranch fauna of the Thalberg Beds, early Egerian (Chattian, Oligocene), in the Subalpine Molasse Basin near Siegsdorf, Bavaria, Germany (129 textpages, with 9 text figures and 38 plates)
Abstract: A single bed of conglomeratic, fossil-rich marls intercalated in siliciclastic Lower Egerian deposits (informally denoted as Thalberg Beds, middle to late Chattian, Late Oligocene) yields a diverse elasmobranch fauna. The conglomeratic bed is exposed in the Thalberg Graben, a few km south of Traunstein, Upper Bavaria. It forms part of the Lower Marine Molasse, deposited in the North Alpine Foreland Basin representing the western prolongation of the Central Paratethys. 22 shark and 5 batoid taxa were recognized, of which 16 and 1, respectively, could be identified to species level. Shark species related to living taxa, actively swimming and foraging in the water column of the neritic zone (Notorynchus, Carcharias, Isurus, Galeorhinus, Alopias, Galeocerdo, Carcharhinus, Squalus and probably the fossil genera Otodus (Carcharocles), Araloselachus, Physogaleus and Carcharoides), dominate the fauna both by the number of observed taxa and collected teeth. Species of planktivorous sharks and batoids are few and their gill rakers (Keasius) and teeth (Mobula, Megachasma) are very rarely encountered. Sharks and batoids inhabiting present-day and past benthic or epibenthic habitats, typically of warm-temperate shelf seas, are strongly underrepresented (scyliorhinids, dasyatids, myliobatids) or completely absent (rajoids) in the Thalberg assemblage. On the other hand, various taxa of deep-water sharks (Hexanchus, Heptranchias, Echinorhinus, Centrophorus) are variably common. The composition of the Thalberg elasmobranch assemblage differs significantly from well documented assemblages of the Chattian warm-temperate/subtropical North Sea shelf, mainly with respect to shallow-marine, benthic and deep-water species.
Many thanks to all friends of shark-references, who send me some missing papers last month!
Shark-References would kindly like to ask you for your contribution to this project.
At the moment I search e.g. the following papers:
Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom:
DENTON, E.J. & NICOL, J.A.C. 1964 The choroidal tapeta of some cartilaginous fishes. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 44 (1): 219-258
STEVENS, J.D. 1973 Stomach contents of the blue shark (Prionace glauca L.) of south-west England. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 53 (2): 357-361
BOXSHALL, G.A. 1974 Infections with parasitic copepods in North Sea marine fishes. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 54 (2): 355-372, figs. 1-2, tabs. 1-3
JOHANSSON-SJOBECK, M.L. & STEVENS, J.D. 1976 Haematological studies on the blue shark, Prionace glauca L. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 56: 237-240.
CRAIK, J.C.A. 1978 The lipids of six species of shark. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 58 (4): 913-921
FÄNGE, R. 1982 Exogenous otoliths in elasmobranchs. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 62: 225
BONE, Q. & CHUBB, A.D. 1983 The retial system of the locomotor muscles in the thresher shark. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 63 (1): 239-241
MORRIS, R.J. & BALLANTINE, J.A. & ROBERTS, J.C. 1983 The sterol composition of some shark livers. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 63 (2): 295-299
SMITH, R.L. & RHODES, D. 1983 Body temperature of the salmon shark, Lamna ditropis. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 63 (1): 243-244
LLEWELLYN, J. & GREEN, J.E. & KEARN, G.C. 1984 A check-list of monogenean (platyhelminth) parasites of Plymouth hosts. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 64 (4): 881-887
SMALE, M.J. & SAUER, W.H.H. & HANLON, R.T. 1995 Attempted ambush predation on spawning squids Loligo vulgaris reynaudii by benthic pyjama sharks, Poroderma africanum, off South Africa. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 75 (3): 739-742
SIMS, D.W. & DAVIES, S.J. & BONE, Q. 1996 Gastric emptying rate and return of appetite in lesser spotted dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula (Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 76 (2): 479-491
Journal of Ichthyology:
PINCHUK, V.I. & PERMITIN, Y.Y. 1970 New data on dogfish sharks of the Family Squalidae in the southeastern Atlantic. Journal of Ichthyology, 10 (3): 273-276
RASS, T.S. & LINDBERG, G.U. 1971 Modern concepts of the classification of living fishes. Journal of Ichthyology, 11: 302-319
GUBANOV, Y.P. 1972 On the biology of the thresher shark (Alopias vulpinus (Bonnaterre)) in the northwest Indian Ocean. Journal of Ichthyology, 12 (4): 591-600, figs 1-2, tabs 1-3
DOMANEVSKIY, L.N. 1975 The Frill Shark, Chlamydoselachus anguineus, from the Cape Blanc Area (Central Eastern Atlantic). Journal of Ichthyology, 15 (6): 1000-1002
GUBANOV, Y.P. & GRIGOREV, V.N. 1975 Distribution and biology of the blue shark Prionace glauca (Carcharhinidae) of the Indian Ocean. Journal of Ichthyology, 15: 37-43
GUBANOV, Y.P. 1976 The first catch of a tagged thresher shark (Alopias vulpinus). Journal of Ichthyology, 16 (3): 497-498
SVETLOV, M.F. 1978 The porbeagle, Lamna nasus, in Antarctic waters. Journal of Ichthyology, 18 (5): 850-851
GUBANOV, Y.P. 1978 The reproduction of some species of pelagic sharks from the equatorial zone of the Indian Ocean. Journal of Ichthyology, 18: 781-792
MYAGKOV, N.A. & KONDYURIN, V.V. 1978 Reproduction of the catshark Apristurus saldanha. Journal of Ichthyology, 4: 627-628
KONSTANTINOV, K.G. & NIZOVTSEV, G.P. 1979 The basking shark, Cetorhinus maximus, in Kandalaksha Bay of the White Sea. Journal of Ichthyology, 19 (1): 155-156
PIOTROVSKIY, A.S. & PRUT'KO, V.G. 1980 The occurrence of the goblin shark, Scapanorhynchus owstoni (Chondrichthyes, Scapanorhynchidae) in the Indian Ocean. Journal of Ichthyology, 20 (1): 124-125
TUMOKHIN, I.G. 1980 Discovery of the frill shark, Chlamydoselachus anguineus, in the southwest Indian Ocean. Journal of Ichthyology, 20 (1): 125-126
PINCHUK, V.I. 1981 Mistaken identification of the so-called "dogfish", a member of the gray shark genus, Carcharhinus , from open waters of world oceans. Journal of Ichthyology, 21 (5): 115-117
LITVINOV, F.F. 1982 Two forms of teeth in Blue shark, Prionace glauca (Carcharhinidae). Journal of Ichthyology, 22 (4): 154-156
LITVINOV, F.F. & AGAPOV, S.N. & KATALIMOV, V.G. & MIRONOV, S.G. 1983 Rate of tooth Replacement in Blue Shark, Prionace glauca (Carcharhinidae), in relation to Feeding. Journal of Ichthyology, 23 (1): 143-145
KONDYURIN, V.V. & MYAGKOV, N.A. 1983 Catches of newborn Greenland shark, Somniosus microcephalus (Bloch and Schneider) (Dalatiidae). Journal of Ichthyology, 23 (6): 140-141
MYAGKOV, N.A. 1984 Unusual brain structure of luminous shark, Isistius brasiliensis (Dalatiidae). Journal of Ichthyology, 24 (2): 109-112
GUBANOV, E.P. 1985 Presence of the sharp tooth sand shark, Odontaspis ferox (Odontaspididae), in the open waters of the Indian Ocean. Journal of Ichthyology, 25 (2): 156-158
PARIN, N.V. & KOTLYAR, A.N. 1985 Electric rays of the genus Torpedo in open waters of the eastern south Pacific Ocean. Journal of Ichthyology, 26 (1): 1-12
GOLOVAN, G.A. & PAKHORUKOV, N.P. 1986 New records of rare species of cartilaginous fishes. Journal of Ichthyology, 26: 117-120
MYAGKOV, N.A. & KONDYURIN, V.V. 1986 Dogfishes Squalus (Squalidae), of the Atlantic Ocean and comparative notes on the species of this genus from other regions. Journal of Ichthyology, 27 (1): 1-18
IVANOV, A. 1986 A new capture of the rare catshark, Apristurus longicephalus (Scyliorhinidae). Journal of Ichthyology, 27 (1): 147-149
IVANOV, A. 1987 On the distribution of the bigeye thresher shark, Alopias superciliosus, in the Pacific Ocean. Journal of Ichthyology, 26 (5): 121-122, fig
GUSHCHIN, A.V. & SUKHOVERSHIN, V.V. & KONOVALENKO, I.I. & SUKHORUKOVA, V.S. 1987 On the capture of the polar shark genus Somniosus (Squalidae) in the Southern Hemisphere. Journal of Ichthyology, 27 (1): 115-117
SHCHERBACHEV, Y.N. 1987 Preliminary list of thalassobathyal fishes of the tropical and subtropical waters of the Indian Ocean. Journal of Ichthyology, 27 (2): 37-46
MYAGKOV, N.A. 1987 External structure of the cephalic brain of the pelagic shark, Squaliolus laticaudus. Journal of Ichthyology, 27 (6): 125-127
GUBANOV, E.P. 1988 Morphological characteristics of the requiem shark, Carcharinus obscurus , of the Indian Ocean. Journal of Ichthyology, 28 (6): 68-73
KASHKIN, N.I. 1989 Mesopelagic ichthyofauna of the southwestern Pacific. Journal of Ichthyology, 29 (3): 116-127, tabs 1-4
BERESTOVSKIY, E.G. 1990 Feeding in the skates, Raja radiata and Raja fyllae, in the Barents and Norwegian seas. Journal of Ichthyology, 29 (8): 88-96
MANILO, L.G. 1993 New reports of fish on the shelf and upper slope of the Western Indian Ocean. Journal of Ichthyology, 33 (1): 128-136
BLAGODEROV, A.I. 1994 Seasonal distribution and some notes on the biology of salmon shark (Lamna ditropis) in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. Journal of Ichthyology, 34 (2): 115-121, figs 1-2, table
ROMANOV, E.V. & SAMOROV, V.V. 1994 On discoveries of the crocodile shark, Pseudocarcharias kamoharai (Pseudocarchariidae), in the Equatorial Indian Ocean. Journal of Ichthyology, 34 (4): 155-157
SAVELEV, S.V. & CHERNIKOV, V.P. 1994 The oceanic whitetip shark, Carcharhinus longimanus, and its use of aerial olfaction in search for food. Journal of Ichthyology, 34 (6): 38-47
PSHENICHNOV, L.K. 1997 A new record for subantarctic fish fauna species of shark Squalus acanthias (Squalidae). Journal of Ichthyology, 37 (8): 678-679
SOKOLOVSKAYA, T.G. & SOKOLOVSKII, A.S. & SOBOLEVSKII, E.I. 1998 A list of fishes of Peter the Great Bay (the Sea of Japan). Journal of Ichthyology, 38 (1): 1-11
NOVIKOV, N.P. 2002 Ecology of the ratfish Hydrolagus africanus (Gilchrist) from the Madagascar and Mozambique submarine ridges. Journal of Ichthyology, 42 (3): 271-274
MANILO, L.G. & BOGORODSKY, S.V. 2003 Taxonomic composition, diversity and distribution of coastal fishes of the Arabian Sea. Journal of Ichthyology, 43 (1): 75-149
Annals and Magazine of Natural History
COUCH, J. 1838 Description of a species of ray-fish, not hitherto included in the British fauna. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, (Series 1), 2: 71-73
CHARLESWORTH, E. 1839 On the remains of a species of Hybodus from Lyme Regis. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, (Series 3): 242-248
Aqua, International Journal of Ichyology
LASSO, C.A. & RIAL, B.A. & LASSO-ALCALA, O. 1997 Notes on the biology of the freshwater stingrays Paratrygon aiereba (Müller & Henle, 1841) and Potamotrygon orbignyi (Castelnau, 1855) (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae) in the Venezuelan Llanos. Aqua, International Journal of Ichyology, 2 (3): 39-50
HUMAN, B.A. 2011 Description of a unique catshark egg capsule (Chondrichthyes: Scyliorhinidae) from the North West Shelf, Western Australia. Aqua, International Journal of Ichyology, 17 (4): 199-209
Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh
WESTOLL, T.S. 1947 The Paired Fins of Placoderms. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 61 (2): 381-398
DICK, J.R.F. 1978 On the Carboniferous shark Tristychius arcuatus Agassiz from Scotland. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 70 (4): 63-109
COATES, M.I. & SEQUEIRA, S.E.K. 1998 The braincase of a primitive shark. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Earth Sciences, 89: 63-85
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New described species/Taxonomic News:
Apristurus breviventralis KAWAUCHI, WEIGMANN & NAKAYA, 2014, holotype, © Simon Weigmann, HamburgKAWAUCHI, J. & WEIGMANN, S. & NAKAYA, K. (2014): Apristurus breviventralis
, a new species of deep-water catshark (Chondrichthyes: Carcharhiniformes: Scyliorhinidae) from the Gulf of Aden. Zootaxa, 3881 (1): 001–016New species: Apristurus breviventralis Abstract:
A new deep-water catshark of the genus Apristurus
Garman, 1913 is described based on nine specimens from the Gulf of Aden in the northwestern Indian Ocean. Apristurus breviventralis
sp. nov. belongs to the ‘brunneus group’ of the genus and is characterized by having pectoral-fin tips reaching beyond the midpoint between the paired fin bases, a much shorter pectoral-pelvic space than the anal-fin base, a low and long-based anal fin, and a first dorsal fin located behind pelvic-fin insertion. The new species most closely resembles the western Atlantic species Apristurus canutus
, but is distinguishable in having greater nostril length than internarial width and longer claspers in adult males. Apristurus breviventralis
sp. nov. represents the sixth species of Apristurus
from the western Indian Ocean and the 38th species globally.
image by C. Cappetta: Squalicorax benguerirensis, Squalicorax microserratus
CAPPETTA, H. & ADNET, S. & AKKRIM, D. & AMALIK, M. (2014): NewSqualicorax species (Neoselachii: Lamniformes) from the Lower Maastrichtian of Ganntour phosphate deposit, Morocco. Palaeovertebrata, 38: e3
New species: Squalicorax benguerirensis, Squalicorax microserratus
Abstract: Two new Squalicorax species, S. benguerirensis nov. sp. and S. microserratus nov. sp. are described from the Lower Maastrichtian of the Benguérir phosphate open mine, Ganntour deposit, Morocco. The species S. benguerirensis nov. sp. was classically assigned to S. yangaensis since Arambourg (1952) and has been also recognized in coeval deposits from eastern USA to Mid-East. The species S. microserratus nov. sp. correspond to the lateral teeth of S. kaupi as reported by Arambourg (1952) and which is now referred in fact to S. bassanii. The comparison of these two new species with other Anacoracids, known in Moroccan or elsewhere, allows highlighting the great taxonomic and ecological diversities of this family during the Cretaceous.
KOOT, M.B. & CUNY, G. & ORCHARD, M.J. & RICHOZ, S. & HART, M.B. & TWITCHETT, R.J. (2014): New hybodontiform and neoselachian sharks from the Lower Triassic of Oman. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, in press
New genera: Safrodus, Polyfaciodus
New species: Omanoselache halli, Safrodus tozeri, Polyfaciodus pandus
Abstract: Elasmobranchs are reported for the first time from Lower Triassic deposits in Oman. The well-preserved remains consist of isolated teeth, dermal denticles and fin spines, recovered from conodont residues. The low-palaeolatitude sections consist of Lopingian–Olenekian shallow and pelagic carbonates in exotics, olistoliths and breccia blocks that have been redeposited in younger allochthonous strata of the Hawasina Basin throughout the Oman Mountains at Jabal Safra (olistoliths within the Jurassic Guwayza Formation, Olenekian), as well as at Wadi Alwa (exotic Alwa Formation, Lopingian–Olenekian) and Wadi Wasit Block (slope breccia in the Al Jil Formation, Induan), both of which occur in the Ba’id region. The recovered fauna contains a small number of pre-existing genera, but is mainly composed of new hybodont and neoselachian taxa. They are identified as: Omanoselache halli Koot & Cuny sp. nov., cf. Omanoselache sp., Safrodus tozeri Koot & Cuny gen. et sp. nov. and Polyfaciodus pandus Koot & Cuny gen. et sp. nov., based on the majority of the recovered dental remains. Spine fragments are identified as cf. Amelacanthus sp. This fauna represents the second published record of neoselachian teeth from the Induan and the most extensive record from the Lower Triassic in terms of abundance and diversity. The fauna is dominated by Neoselachii, whereas other Early Triassic faunas are hybodont-dominated, and histological study of the neoselachian enameloid significantly adds to our knowledge of the early stages of their evolution. All described taxa are new to the Oman fossil record and that of western Neotethys, apart from Omanoselache andAmelacanthus, which have been recognized from Wordian deposits, andOmanoselache is the second genus from Oman known to have survived the late Permian mass extinction. The level of faunal diversity recognized here is comparable to other Early Triassic faunas but is much reduced compared to the Wordian pre-extinctions fauna.
ACOREMA (2014): Los Tiburones de la Provincia de Pisco. ACOREMA, 2014: 33p
ANDERSON, D.J. & KOBRYN, H.T. & NORMAN, B.M. & BEJDER, L. & TYNE, J.A. & LONERAGAN, N.R. (2014): Spatial and temporal patterns of nature-based tourism interactions with whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia.Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, 148: 109-119 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2014.05.023
ARI, C. (2014): Long-term body pigmentation changes on a manta ray (Mobulidae).Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, in press http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bij.12416
BALABAN, J.P. & SUMMERS, A.P. & WILGA, C.A. (2014): Mechanical properties of the hyomandibula in four shark species. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological Genetics and Physiology, in press http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jez.1888
BOISVERT, C.A. & MARTINS, C.L. & EDMUNDS, A.G. & COCKS, J. & CURRIE, P. (2014): Capture, transport, and husbandry of elephant sharks (Callorhinchus milii) adults, eggs, and hatchlings for research and display. Zoo Biology, in press http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/zoo.21183
BOLAÑO-MARTÍNEZ, N. & BAYONA-VASQUEZ, N. & URIBE-ALCOCER, M. & DÍAZ-JAIMES, P. (2014): The mitochondrial genome of the hammerhead Sphyrna zygaena. Mitochondrial DNA, in press http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/19401736.2014.982574
BYRKJEDAL, I. & CHRISTIANSEN, J.S. & KARAMUSHKO, O.V. & LANGHELLE, G. & LYNGHAMMAR, A. (2014): Arctic skate Amblyraja hyperborea preys on remarkably large glacial eelpouts Lycodes frigidus. Journal of Fish Biology, in press http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfb.12554
CHURCHILL, D.A. & HEITHAUS, M.R. & VAUDO, J.J. & GRUBBS, D. & GASTRICH, K. & CASTRO, J.I. (2014): Trophic interactions of common elasmobranchs in deep-sea communities of the gulf of Mexico revealed through stable isotope and stomach content analysis. Deep Sea Research Part II Topical Studies in Oceanography, in press http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2014.10.011
CORTÉS, E. & BROOKS, E.N. (2014): Application of Data-Poor Stock Assessment Methods to Atlantic Sharks. Abstract. Conference: American Fisheries Society 144th Annual Meeting
COUTURIER, L.I.E. & JAINE, F.R.A. & KASHIWAGI, T. (2014): First photographic records of the giant manta ray Manta birostris off eastern Australia. Abstract. PeerJ PrePrints, 2: e572v1 http://dx.doi.org/10.7287/peerj.preprints.572v1
DEL MAR PEDREROS-SIERRA, T. & RAMÍREZ-PINILLA, M.P. (2014): Morphology of the reproductive tract and acquisition of sexual maturity in males of Potamotrygon magdalenae (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae). Journal of Morphology, in press http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmor.20337
DELL'APA, A. & BANGLEY, C.W. & RULIFSON, R.A. (2014): Who let the dogfish out? A review of management and socio-economic aspects of spiny dogfish fisheries.Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, in press http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11160-014-9379-1
DELORENZO, D.M. & BETHEA, D.M. & CARLSON, J.K. (2014): An assessment of the diet and trophic level of Atlantic sharpnose shark Rhizoprionodon terraenovae.Journal of Fish Biology, in press http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfb.12558
DI SANTO, V. (2015): Ocean acidification exacerbates the impacts of global warming on embryonic little skate, Leucoraja erinacea (Mitchill). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 463: 72-78 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2014.11.006
DUCKETT, D.J. & NAYLOR, G.J.P. (2014): The complete mitochondrial genome of the endangered spotback skate, Atlantoraja castelnaui. Mitochondrial DNA, in press http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/19401736.2014.982566
ESPINOZA, M. & HEUPEL, M.R. & TOBIN, A.J. & SIMPFENDORFER, C.A. (2014): Residency patterns and movements of grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) in semi-isolated coral reef habitats. Marine Biology, in press http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-014-2572-x
FEUTRY, P. & EVERY, S.L. & KYNE, P.M. & SUN, R. & CHEN, X. (2014): Complete mitochondrial genome of the Pigeye Shark Carcharhinus amboinensis (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae). Mitochondrial DNA, in press http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/19401736.2014.982590
FEUTRY, P. & KYNE, P.M. & PILLANS, R.D. & CHEN, X. & NAYLOR, G.J.P. & GREWE, P.M. (2014): Mitogenomics of the Speartooth Shark challenges ten years of control region sequencing. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 14 (1): 232 http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-014-0232-x
GARCIA, G. & PEREYRA, S. & GUTIERREZ, V. & OVIEDO, S. & MILLER, P. & DOMINGO, A. (2014): Population structure of Squatina guggenheim (Squatiniformes, Squatinidae) from the south-western Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Fish Biology, in press http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfb.12560
GERMANOV, E.S. & MARSHALL, A.D. (2014): Running the Gauntlet: Regional Movement Patterns of Manta alfredi through a Complex of Parks and Fisheries. PLoS ONE, 9 (10): e110071 http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110071
GROENEVELD, J.C. & CLIFF, G. & DUDLEY, S.F.J. & FOULIS, A.J. & SANTOS, J. & WINTNER, S.P. (2014): Population structure and biology of shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus, in the south-west Indian Ocean. Marine and Freshwater Research, 65 (12): 1045–1058 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/MF13341
GUBILI, C. & SIMS, D.W. & VERÍSSIMO, A. & DOMENICI, P. & ELLIS, J. & GRIGORIOU, P. & JOHNSON, A.F. & MCHUGH, M. & NEAT, F. & SATTA, A. & SCARCELLA, G. & SERRA-PEREIRA, B. & SOLDO, A. & GENNER, M.J. & GRIFFITHS, A.M. (2014): A tale of two seas: contrasting patterns of population structure in the small-spotted catshark across Europe. Royal Society Open Science, 1: 140175 http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.140175
HEARD, M. & VAN RIJN, J.A. & REINA, R.D. HUVENEERS, C. (2014): Impacts of crowding, trawl duration and air exposure on the physiology of stingarees (Family: Urolophidae). Conservation Physiology, 2 (1): cou040 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/conphys/cou040
HOYOS-PADILLA, E. & KETCHUM, J.T. & KLIMLEY, A. & GALVÁN-MAGAÑA, F. (2014): Ontogenetic migration of a female scalloped hammerhead shark Sphyrna lewini in the Gulf of California. Animal Biotelemetry, 2 (1): 17 http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2050-3385-2-17
HSU, H.H. & JOUNG, S.J. & HUETER, R.E. & LIU, K.-M. (2014): Age and growth of the whale shark (Rhincodon typus) in the north-western Pacific. Marine and Freshwater Research, 65 (12): 1145–1154 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/MF13330
HUSSEY, N.E. & COSANDEY-GODIN, A. & WALTER, R.P. & HEDGES, K.J. & VANGERWEN-TOYNE, M. & BARKLEY, A.N. & KESSEL, S.T. & FISK, A.T. (2014): Juvenile Greenland sharks Somniosus microcephalus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) in the Canadian Arctic. Polar Biology, in press http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00300-014-1610-y
JABADO, R.W. & AL GHAIS, S,M. & HAMZA, W. & HENDERSON, A.C. & SPAET, J.L.Y. & SHIVJI, M.S. & HANNER, R.H. (2015): The trade in sharks and their products in the United Arab Emirates. Biological Conservation, 181: 190-198 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2014.10.032
JEEVITHAN, E. & WU, W. & WANG, N. & LAN, H. & BAO, B. (2014): Isolation, purification and characterization of pepsin soluble collagen isolated from silvertip shark (Carcharhinus albimarginatus) skeletal and head bone. Process Biochemistry, 49 (10): 1767-1777 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2014.06.011
JERVE, A. & JOHANSON, Z. & AHLBERG, P. & BOISVERT, C. (2014): Embryonic development of fin spines in Callorhinchus milii (Holocephali); implications for chondrichthyan fin spine evolution. Evolution & Development, 16 (6): 339-353 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ede.12104
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Cool 3D Video of a Dalatias (No Isistius) jaw! Enjoy it! Use the link: Post by
Imaging and Analysis Centre, Natural History Museum.
| source: http://www.wired.com/2014/11/absurd-creature-week-nightmarish-shark-lures-victims-effed-teeth/
Absurd Creature of the Week: The Nightmarish Shark That Lures Victims With Its Effed Up Teeth
Don’t confuse that for a smile. This shark is dead, and that’s nothing to smile about. David A. Ebert
Not unlike Garth Brooks concerts and Applebee’s, the deep sea is one of those places you don’t need to visit to know that it sucks. Down in the depths, mates are hard to find, thus the male anglerfish bites onto a female and fuses to her body, living the rest of his bummer of a life as a gonad. In the blackness seeing is next to impossible, even with the huge eyes of, say, the giant squid. And you really never know when you’ll get your next meal, so you’d do well to have an outsized mouth to take on whatever comes your way.
It also doesn’t hurt to have row after row of backward-facing, needle-like teeth—hundreds and hundreds of them, each forked into three nasty prongs. Such is the grotesque mouth of the frilled shark, surely one of the more bizarre sharks in the sea. And it’s a mouth that biologist David A. Ebert, director of the Pacific Shark Research Center, knows all too well to respect.
“I can tell you from snagging my fingers on the teeth, you can only back out one way and that’s in toward the mouth and then out,” he said. “It didn’t feel good, I can tell you that.”
Now, science has known about the frilled shark since the 19th century, but it was Ebert who first described a second species in 2009, some 20 years after he discovered it off the coast of southern Africa. (“It happens a lot of the time,” he said nonchalantly of the delay. “You get stuck trying to go through the publishing process.”) At 3 feet long, it was about half the length of the previously known species, but no less well equipped with nasty teeth.
Perfect, Ebert says, for not only snagging squid, but luring them. In contrast to the shark’s dark brown or grayish skin, “the bright teeth might serve as almost a lure to bring in prey items that see this light color,” he said. “And by the time they realize,Oh, that’s the teeth of a shark, they’re too close and the shark is able to ambush them at that point.”
“It’s almost like when you drive out of a parking lot exit and they have the spikes sticking out that say, ‘Do not back up,’” he added. “That’s kind of what happens when these things catch prey items.”
As if that weren’t enough, there are extra spines that line the mouth, what are known as dermal denticles. These are scales that have been modified into pseudo-teeth—and in fact all shark teeth are scales. Incredibly, over the course of their evolution, sharks have turned scales into all manner of wonderful chompers, from the 6-inch teeth of megalodon to the frilled shark’s pronged pearly whites to the fused picket-fence-like grill of the cookiecutter shark that took a chunk out of a dude I once had the honor of interviewing.
The dermal denticles, essentially an extra set of teeth along the lips. David A. Ebert
You may have also noticed that the shape of the frilled shark’s mouth is a bit peculiar, more like a snake’s than a shark’s. This is no accident. It’s likely an adaptation that allows the shark to gape far wider than a shark with a typical mouth orientation. (It’s worth noting that the frilled shark’s deep-sea cousin, the goblin shark, has its own lovely oral adaptation: jaws that fire so far forward they look like they’re trying to escape from its face.)
Because it has that incredible maw, the frilled shark can take prey up to half the length of its own body, including other sharks (that’s like you swallowing a person half your height, if you were looking for an analogy). Again, the better adapted you are to tackle prey of all sizes in a desolate environment, the better equipped you are to survive. “It’s kind of a contrast from, say, the white sharks, which sometimes bite and spit things out,” Ebert said. “But where they’re hunting they probably have a better chance of coming across something again.” White sharks will return to spots where the hunting is good, and while frilled sharks may do the same, there’s no doubting that their stomping grounds are far less productive than a reef ecosystem.
The frilled shark is so named for its fluffy red gills, which may help it thrive in oxygen-deprived environments. In the depths, you see, sometimes there’s enough oxygen, on account of good currents and the fact cold water more readily absorbs the gas than warm, but there often are zones where blooms of bacteria consume all the oxygen. Ebert cautions, though, that there isn’t enough data on frilled sharks to confirm that their frilly gills are an adaptation to cope with low oxygen levels.
Also a bit of a mystery is the shark’s life cycle. Critters in the deep tend to grow slowly to conserve energy because of the relative lack of food. And the frilled shark is no exception. It’s viviparous, meaning its young develop inside the mother, and according to Ebert, this can take an incredible two years (a colleague of his estimates it could be as long as three and a half years), making their gestation among the longest in the animal kingdom—the elephant’s also clocks in at abouttwo years.
A frilled shark that goes by the name H0-34, sometimes mispronounced HO-34. David A. Ebert
This prolonged pregnancy is an excellent strategy—if you look past the two years of weird cravings for pickles and the back pain—because the highly developed babies, as many as a dozen of them, are better suited to take on their world. “So they have larger young that are able to fend for themselves when they’re born,” said Ebert. “A lot of the bony fishes, things like salmon and stuff, they put out millions of eggs, and maybe two out of a million will survive. Whereas with the sharks and rays, they’re looking at having a much higher percentage survive.” Still, there’s an advantage in the spray-and-pray method: You can do it often, and it takes nowhere near the energy of viviparity.
The frilled shark’s epic commitment to its young was all well and good until humans showed up. Because many deep-sea creatures like the frilled shark take so long to develop, and because they have so few young in their lifetime, fishing puts a tremendous strain on their populations. While fishermen aren’t necessarily setting out to snag the frilled shark, the creatures do get tangled up in trawlers as by-catch. Accordingly, the IUCN has listed it as a near threatened species.
But here’s to hoping we can get our act together and start seriously tackling the problem of overfishing, before sharks fight back by evolving to walk on land. I mean, did you ever watch Street Sharks? Anything is possible if it happened in a horrifying ’90s-era cartoon.
FIRST FOSSIL SNAGGLETOOTH SHARK SKELETON EVER FOUND!
Calvert Marine Museum (CMM) paleontologists excavated an extremely rare fossilized skeleton of a 15-million-year-old shark on October 31, 2014. Uncovered by the Gibson family on their property in Chesapeake Beach Maryland, this snaggletooth shark skeleton is the first of its kind ever found.
Shawn Gibson contacted Dr. Stephen Godfrey, Curator of Paleontology at CMM, about a fossil find that his brother, Donald, discovered. Donald found fossil shark vertebrae while digging footers for a new sunroom at the home of his parents, Donnie and Jo Ann Gibson. He contacted Pat Gotsis, a family friend who has collected fossils for over 40 years. Pat knew immediately it was something special. After a day of digging, Shawn, with help from his 7-year-old son Caleb, excavated over 50 vertebrae. When they realized that the vertebrae led up to the shark’s skull with jaws full of teeth, Shawn called the museum for help.
Shawn Gibson’s phone call describing their find was so unusual that John Nance, Assistant Curator of Paleontology, and Dr. Godfrey investigated immediately. “We were wonderstruck at seeing the articulated shark skeleton!” said Dr. Godfrey.
Aside from their teeth, shark skeletons are made of cartilage, which does not fossilize nearly as well as bone. Typically after animals die if parts of their skeleton do not disintegrate immediately, they are scattered by scavengers. In this case, most of the teeth and skeleton stayed together in a life-like way as it became buried in sand on the ocean floor.
Godfrey told those gathered that he had never seen anything like it and would probably not live long enough to see another. “We are very grateful that the Gibson’s stopped digging when they did and called the museum for help.” The rest of the skeleton was excavated that evening and trick-or-treater’s watched as the team worked to put a protective cast around the fossilized shark skeleton. Robert Cantrell (AllFinsOn.com) filmed and photographed the excavation and the skeleton is now at the Calvert Marine Museum where it will be prepared for display and research.
This skeleton, the first one of this kind of shark ever found, belongs to the extinct snaggletooth shark, Hemipristis serra. Over 80 vertebrae and hundreds of teeth from one individual were found. The shark would have been 8 to10 feet long. The jaws and teeth were preserved mostly intact after the shark came to rest upside down on the ocean floor 15 million years ago during the Miocene epoch. Even more astounding, is the presence of delicate jaw cartilage which is almost never preserved.
The closest living relative to this extinct Miocene shark is also known as the snaggletooth or weasel shark (Hemipristis elongata; Family Hemigaleidae). It is found in the Indo-West Pacific, including the Red Sea, from southeast Africa to the Philippines, north to China, and south to Australia, in coastal waters at depths of 4 to 400 feet. The living snaggletooth shark grows up to 8 feet in length, and preys upon crabs, cephalopods, other sharks, rays, and fish. The teeth of the extinct snaggletooth shark are so similar to those of its living relative that they probably had a comparable diet.