Galeorhinus galeus

(LINNAEUS, 1758)


Tope shark
Classification: Elasmobranchii Carcharhiniformes Triakidae

Reference of the original description
LINNÉ, C. (1758)
Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, regnum animale, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus differentiis synonymis, locis. Ed. X., 1: 824 p. Stockholm (L. SALVIUS).

Image of the original description
No image in first description.

Synonyms / new combinations and misspellings
Carcharhinus cyrano, Eugaleus galeus, Galeocerdo pantanellii, Galeorhinus aff. canis, Galeorhinus aff. galeus, Galeorhinus australis, Galeorhinus canis, Galeorhinus cf. australis, Galeorhinus cf. galeus, Galeorhinus chilensis, Galeorhinus pantanellii, Galeorhinus vitaminicus, Galeorhinus zyopterus, Galeus australis, Galeus canis, Galeus cf. canis, Galeus chilensis, Galeus communis, Galeus galeus, Galeus linnei, Galeus molinae, Galeus nilssoni, Galeus pantanellii, Galeus vulgaris, Galeus zyopterus, Galeus (Galeorhinus) canis, Notogaleus australis, Notogaleus rhinophanes, Squalus galeus, Squalus rhinophanes

Types
Galeorhinus galeus

Carcharhinus cyrano
Holotype: AMS: IA.3983;
Galeorhinus zyopterus
Paratype: ANSP: 582 (old: USFC 27190); Syntype: BMNH: 1881.3.14.255 (ex USNM) MCZ: 35949 (ex USNM 26973) USNM: 27191; USNM: 26927; USNM: 27190; USNM: 26973; ZMUC: ? (ex USNM)
Galeus canis
Syntype: ANSP: 605 (missing, old: Bonaparte 254, ANSP 605-608);
Galeus molinae
Syntype: DBCUCH: ? (several)


Description :


Citation: Galeorhinus galeus (LINNAEUS, 1758): In: Database of modern sharks, rays and chimaeras, www.shark-references.com, World Wide Web electronic publication, Version 05/2019

Please send your images of "Galeorhinus galeus" to info@shark-references.com

Galeorhinus galeus (LINNAEUS, 1758), immature female, 143 cm TL, 12,2 kg, caught in Santa Pola (Alicante, Spain) in may 2016 © L'Elasmogrup, University of Valencia)
Common names
deu \(T\) Australischer Hundshai, deu \(T\) Biethai, deu \(T\) Gemeine Meersau, deu \(T\) Großer Hundshai, deu \(T\) Hundshai, deu \(T\) Schulhai, spa Aceitero, spa Bostrich, spa Bostrio, spa Cazon, spa Cazón aceitero, spa Cazón de altura, spa Cazón dientuso, spa Caçó, spa Cuero, spa Cámari, spa Gat, spa Musola corallo, spa Tiburón aceitoso, spa Tiburón de aleta, spa Tiburón vitaminico, spa Tollo, spa Tollo cazón, spa Tollos, spa Trompa de cristal, fra \(T\) Cagnot, fra \(T\) Canicule, fra \(T\) Chien de mer, fra \(T\) Chien hâ, fra \(T\) Gat, fra \(T\) Halt, fra \(T\) Haut, fra \(T\) Hâ, fra \(T\) Lamie, fra \(T\) Lamiola, fra \(T\) Milandre, fra \(T\) Pal, fra \(T\) Pallon, fra \(T\) Palloun, fra \(T\) Paroun, fra \(T\) Requin-hâ, fra \(T\) Touille, fra \(T\) Émissole, eng Eastern school shark, eng Flake, eng Greyboy, eng Greyshark, eng Hundshai, eng Penny"s dog, eng Schnapper shark, eng School Shark, eng School shark, eng Sharpie shark, eng Snapper shark, eng Soupfin shark, eng Sweet William shark, eng Tope, eng Tope oil shark, eng Tope school shark, eng Tope shark, eng Tope soupfin shark, eng Vitamin shark, ita Bistinu, ita Cagnassa, ita Cagnizza, ita Can da denti, ita Can negro, ita Canesca, ita Canoso, ita Canuso, ita Canuzzu, ita Capucchiata, ita Galeo, ita Muzzolu, ita Paccavà, ita Palombo, ita Palummina, ita Palummu, ita Passaturi, ita Pesce cane, ita Piscicani, ita Vaccotta, por Bico de cristal, por Cação, por Cação-bico-de-cristal, por Perna-de-moça, por Perna-de-moça da Australia, por Tubarão-perna-de-moça, por Tubarão-vitamínico

Short Description
A large houndshark with a long, pointed snout, a large mouth, and small blade-like teeth; 2nd dorsal about as large as anal fin and terminal caudal lobe as long as rest of fin [536]. Greyish above, white below; young with black markings on fins [536].

Distribution
Widespread in temperate waters (Ref. 52183). Western Atlantic: southern Brazil to Argentina. Eastern Atlantic: Iceland to South Africa, including the Mediterranean. Western Indian Ocean: South Africa. Western Pacific: Australia and New Zealand. Eastern Pacific: Hawaii; British Columbia, Canada to southern Baja California and the Gulf of California in Mexico; Peru and Chile. Source: www.gbif.org

Human uses
fisheries: highly commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums; price category: medium; price reliability: reliable: based on ex-vessel price for this species

Biology
Ovoviviparous, without a yolk-sac placenta [517]. Embryos feed solely on yolk [733]. 6 to 52 young in a litter [578]. Litter size increases with the size of the mother. Embryos reach 30-36 cm TL at birth (Ref. 6080). In the southern waters of Australia, newly born and older juveniles (30-70 cm long) aggregate in "quot;nursery areas"quot; found in shallow waters.They move to deeper coastal waters to over-winter. The following spring finds most of these young returning to their nursery areas. The older ones, aged 2 years and over move instead to eastern Bass Strait where most of the immature stock are found. The length of an average full-term embryo is 32 cm. Spawning frequency is once every year, ovulation occurring in early summer and parturition is completed by January of the following year. Gestation period lasts for about 12 months (Ref. 6390) [1388]. Occurs on the continental shelf and slope (Ref. 75154). Demersal piscivore [20063]. In the southern waters of Australia, school sharks are found in schools which are of mainly similar sex and similar size. A great part of the population migrates to the warmer waters of South Australia and New South Wales in the late summer and winter months. They return to the Bass Strait and the continental shelf around Australia during October or November (Ref. 6390). The species undertakes long migrations (movements) up to 2,500 km in the northeast Atlantic and to 1,400 km in southern Australia [1388].

Size / Weight / Age
193 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637)); 195 cm TL (female); max. published weight: 44.7 kg (Ref. 40637); max. reported age: 55 years [1388]

Habitat
benthopelagic; oceanodromous [17660]; marine; depth range 0 - 1100 m [578], usually 2 - 470 m (Ref. 36731)

Remarks
shark-references Species-ID=2374;

Parasites (arranged by Jürgen Pollerspöck)
Myxosporea
  • Ceratomyxa sphaerulosa THÉLOHAN, 1892 [21233]
  • Chloromyxum ovatum JAMESON, 1929 [23379]

Monogenea
  • Erpocotyle canis (CERFONTAINE, 1899) [9358]
  • Erpocotyle eugalei (PRICE, 1942) [17150]
  • Erpocotyle laevis VAN BENEDEN & HESSE, 1863 [15273]
  • Erpocotyle maccallumi (PRICE, 1942) [22589] [17150]
  • Hexabothrium akaroensis DILLON & HARGIS, 1965 [22557] [16602]

Cestoda
Trematoda
  • Staphylorchis pacificus (CABALLERO, 1945) CUTMORE, BENNETT & CRIBB, 2010 [23771]

Nematoda
Acanthocephala
Copepoda
Hirudinea
  • Branchellion lobata MOORE, 1952 [23244]